548 Publications

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Global Ranking of Nigerian Universities: Challenges and Ways Forward

The unofficial ranking of tertiary institutions which many Nigerian have often engaged in unconsciously is taken more seriously in other climes. The business of ranking tertiary institutions all over the world has been fuelled by various factors: students who are looking for a good institution to pursue their careers, academics, who are desirous of finding appropriate institutions also for career fulfillment, and even cooperate bodies looking for expertise and research results in various fields, in order to overtake their competitors and enhance their profits. In the recent ranking of Nigerian tertiary institutions, only eight federal universities, one private and one federal polytechnic, made the list of the top 100 in Africa (Webometrics Ranking of the World Universities, 2012). But no Nigerian tertiary institution was featured among the world’s best 500 universities in the global ranking released recently by the global ranking agencies. Hence, this paper examined the global ranking of Nigerian universities, challenges and the way forward. It was concluded that the global ranking of universities is a desirable tool for assessment and motivation. The paper recommended that Nigeria universities should carry out quality teaching and research activities to elicit global ranking.
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Globalizaion and Sharia Question in Nigeria” in Diane Sinton (ed.) the Arts, Man and Globalization; Trends and Problems (ghana: Deocraftghana, 2006) 229-244

The author in his further study on the Sharia, argues that the issue is now a global one and shows how Nigeria is badly affected in terms of religious crises and degradation of human dignity and suggests a way out.
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Globalizing the Activities of Media Organizations for National Development: the Nigerian Experience’

Author(s): OBOH, G. E (2009)
Published at :International Journal of Broadcasting and Communication Technology, Department of Broadcasting, Lagos State University, 2 (1), pp. 77-91 (ISSN: 2141-1883)
This study examines the historical antecedents of the transnational media organizations; their role in international relations, and how their effectiveness in the reportage of events and issues in favour of the industrialised nations later led to the agitation for a New World Information and Communication Order (NWJCO) by the Third World countries under the platform of the McBride Commission established in 1977 by UNESCO, which was mandated to investigate and find solutions to the communication problems of the world. Findings in this study however revealed that the Third World media systems heavily rely on the global media for leadership and direction, in providing reports on issues of public importance. Analyses of arguments by scholars, as well as data reviewed in this study, revealed that the self-imposed incubus, media and cultural imperialism, lacked verifiable evidence to authenticate the cause and effect relationship between the mass media reports and their implications on the cultural identity of the Third World countries. From our analysis, Nigeria was however discovered to be an active non-participant observer in both the global market as well as the global village; as the country has no credible products, apart from petroleum, that can be globalised for profitability using global media institutions.
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God's Creation of the Universe Revisited

Author(s): MIKE OKEMI (2012)
Abstract This is a re-examination of the history of the origin of the universe as recorded in the Bible and an attempt to find out if God actually created man on the 6th day, if not, which day did he create man. There is also the question as to when God actually completed his work of creation and whether there were different phases involved in the process of creation. The research method used is a case study of the creation of the universe, life, man, plants and animals and an analysis of records in the Bible. Findings are, that there were three phases in the process of creation and that the process did not come to an end on the 6th day as the process continued on a day after the 7th day on which God rested. The work also found that there were three other days of creation aside the first 6 days and are referred to as days 8, 9 and 10 bringing the total days of creation to 9 not 6.This work asserts that man was not created or did not come into existence on the sixth day.The main conclusions are that God did not create man on the 6th day because the decision to create man on the 6th day was only a pronouncement of a plan of action that was executed on the 8th day and that the plan also included that of creating the woman. Since man was not created or did not come into existence on the 6th day, the process of creation did not end on that day but continued on day 8 in which the man was formed and came into being. Also the creative work of God came to an end after forming the woman called Eve and establishing the marriage institution. Consequently, the process can be said to have been completed on day 10, the day the woman was created. That there were three phases in the process of creation and three other days of creation apart from days 1-6 which are days 8, 9 and 10. Key Words:Creationism, Creationists, Palaeontology, Day- age theory, Gap theory, Phase,
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Ground State Energy of the Two-dimensional Hubbard Model at Low Filling

Published at :Journal of Applied Sciences Research
the ground state of the Hubbard model for L x L square lattices (L= 2,3,4,5) at low fillings (2 electrons) is studied using perturbation theory. it is shown that for the ratio (U/N) of the positive on site coulomb interaction U and the number of sites N, result obtained from perturbation theory is in agreement with that obtained using correlated variational approach for small values of the ratio (U/N).
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Growth Responses of the African Mudfish, Parachanna Obscura to Water Soluble Fractions of Crude Oil. African Scientist (afs) Vol. 12 No. 1: 13 – 17

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. ; ORONSAYE, J. A. O. AND OBANO, E. E. (2011)
This study monitored the effects of water soluble fractions (WSFs) of crude oil on the growth rate of fingerlings of Parachana obscura. The fish fingerlings were exposed to 0% (Control), 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% concentration of WSFs of crude oil in a renewable bioassay, under laboratory conditions. The results revealed that the WSFs of crude oil impacted negatively on P. obscura as evident in the observed reduction in growth rate of exposed fingerlings. It was also observed that under sub-lethal concentrations, the exposed fishes were weak, swam sluggishly, aggregated together and exhibited reduced feeding when compared to control fishes. The p H and temperature values in the various test solutions were unchanged and similar to that of the control experiment. Do values 11 were, however, significantly reduced with increasing concentrations of the test solution and period of exposure. A corresponding increase in BOD values was observed as DO values decreased. Te results of this study corroborated reported impacts of oil spills as happen frequently in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria on the fisheries of the area in particular and the world fisheries in general. Consequently, far reaching actions to prevent or reduce the incidence of oil spills and mitigate the impacts of such spills especially in the Niger Delta is strongly advocated.
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Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment and Some Important Commercial Fish Species from Ikpoba River, Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, Vol. 4 (2): 63-68.

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. AND ORONSAYE, J. A. O. (2000)
The levels of Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Zink (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in water, sediment and some commercially important fish species (Clarias gariepinus, Chana obscura and Oreochromis niloticus from two stations at Ikpoba River, Benin City have been studied. The concentration of Fe and Pb differed significantly in both water and sediments while only Cu, Cr and Cd differed in the sediment. Only Ni and Zn differed significantly in the water between stations. All fish noticeably accumulated heavy metals. Tha value varied amongst the different heavy metals and fish species. Some non-essential metals, Ni, Cr and Pb exceeded the FAO acceptable limits in food fish. The implication is that Ikpba River is polluted, consequently the fish are contaminated by heavy metals.
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Heavy Metal Concentrations in Malapterurus Electricus and Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus from Ogba River in Benin City, Nigeria. *african Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 5 (10): 974-982

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. ; ORONSAYE, J. A. O. AND OBANO, E. E. (2006)
The concentrations of heavy metals in two tropical fish species (Malapterurus electricus and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) from Ogba River in Benin City were investigated between November 2002 and October, 2003 in order to ascertain the pollution status of the river. The results showed varying levels of accumulation of Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd in the fishes. The levels of Cu, Mn, Cr and Ni in both fishes were higher than the WHO and FEPA recommended maximum allowable standards in food fish, while those of Zn, Pb and Cd were lower than the standards. The results suggest that the Ogba River system is contaminated with heavy metals and the consumption of the fishes of fishes of the river could pose health hazards to man. Metal levels in water in Ogba River are lower tha the recommended limiting standards and could be considered safe for drinking.
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Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Offals, Gills, Carcass and Whole-fish Samples of Parachanna Obscura from Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria. *african Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 6 (22): 2620-2627

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. (2007)
This study assessed and monitored the concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in the gills, offal, muscle and liver of a commercially important mudfish (Parachanna obscura) from Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria between January and December, 2005. The same metals were also determined in the water of the river. The results revealed that the concentrations of all the metals in the tissues (offal, gill, muscle and liver) were higher than the concentrations of the metals in the water and indicated bioaccumulation. The concentrations of all the metals in water were below WHO and FEPA recommended limits and suggested that the water of Ogba River was suitable for drinking, but the concentrations of Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni and Pb in all fish tissues exceeded these limits and indicated that the fishes of Ogba River, as far as these metals were concerned were unfit for human consumption. Consequently, close monitoring of metals pollution and the consumption of the fishes of Ogba River is recommended with a view to minimizing the risks to health of the population that depend on the river for their water and fish supply.
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Heavy Metals in the Sediment of Ibiekuma Stream in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. African Journal of General Agriculture, Vol. 4 (2): 107-112

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. (2008)
This study determined the concentration of Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the sediment of Ibiekuma Stream, Edo State, Nigeria. The contamination levels of the respective metals were varied and the range of month mean values in µg/g were Fe (236.9-876.32), Cd (0.01- 0.36), Cr (0.08 - 0.14), Cu (1.05 - 1.97), Mn (11.16 - 15.42), Ni (0.02 - 0.35), Pb (0.11 - 0.92), V (0.008 -0.017) and Zn (44.96 - 55.89). Metal seasonal mean values for not different except for Fe and Mn. The metal levels (except Cd) were lower than mean values for continental crust and unpolluted African inland water sediments and indicated that metal contamination in the stream might not pose immediate threats to the organisms therein and to people that utilize the stream gfor drinking and other domestic uses. However, because Cd levels were a bit elevated, close monitoring of metal pollution of the stream is recommended in view of possible future risks that Cd could pose in the system.
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Hepatotoxic and Haemolytic Effect of Acute Exposure of Rats to Artesunate Overdose

Author(s): OMORUYI, I.O., NWANGWU, S.C., OKUGBO, O.T., OKOYE, O.T., OJIEH, G.C., AND WOGU, M.D (2008)
Published at :African Journal of Biochemistry Research, 2(5),107–110
Hepatotoxic and hemolytic effects of artesunate overdose were examined in rats. Forty (40%) rats were grouped randomly into four designated as A, B, C, D, and were given oral administration of artesunate as follows: 0 mg/kg (control), 1 mg/kg (Under-dose), 2 mg/kg (Normal dose) and 4 mg/kg (Overdose) respectively. The administration was continued for 5 days. Hepatotoxicity was monitored in the rats as a function of changes in serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum albumin and malondiadehyde (MDA) level. The hemolytic effect of this drug was monitored by changes in the packed cell volume (PCV), total bilirubin conjugated bilirubin. An increased hepatocyte and erythrocyte malondiadehyde level was also observed in group D. The result also shows increased activities for the serum enzymes in all the groups when compared with control group but significant increase was recorded for groups C and D. There is a clear indication that hepatotoxicity and hemotoxicity are associated with artesunate administration at both required and overdose conditions. However these effects are magnified in overdose conditions.
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Hermeneutics of Clamours for Islamic Reforms in Contemporary Nigeria: the Sharia and Islamic Education” in Epha

The author outlines how Nigerian Muslims have been clamouring for religious reforms in Nigeria. They focus on having the Sharia as the law of the land and on having Islamic education devoid of Western values. These clamours, the author argues, are in consonance with the global Islamic resurgence. He suggests that religious peace can be achieved by sticking to the secular nature of the Nigerian State, where there is no State Religion.
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Hermeneutics of Religious Crises in Contemporary Nigeria: Oriental Philosophy of Religious Tolerance As a Recipe for Peace

In this Article the author makes an interpretative study of religious crises in Nigeria and finds that politics, economic deprivation and ethnicity are often the reasons for the so-called religious crises. He makes his suggestions.
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Highlights of Trial of Election Petitions Under the Electoral Act 2006

Author(s): JESUOROBO E. IDUGBOE (2006)
This article deals with the highlights of the trial of election petitions under the Electoral Act 2006 in Nigeria. Election is the ’formal process of selecting or choosing a person for public office or, accepting or rejecting political manifestos or proposals, by voting. Trial here denotes adjudication or determination of an election petition.Election petition is a means of seeking justice in a tribunal or court after an undeserved defeat in an election by an opponent who either was not qualified to participate in the election, or engaged in an electoral malpractice to emerge victorious in the election, among other things. A trial in this context means the adjudication of an election petition in a court of competent jurisdiction.The rules of procedure and practice to be applied in the trial of election petitions, what an election petition should contain, the hearing of the petition from day to day, issues of adjournment, the effect | of the immunity clause, nomination of candidates for election, issues of electoral malpractices and how proved, electoral offences and how proved, the nature of burden of proof in election petitions, the onus of proof in election petitions and the issue of substantial conformity with the provisions of the Act are discussed
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Hindu Caste System As Racial Apartheid in Antiquity. a Critical Evaluation in Contemporary Trends

The author argues that the Hindu Caste system is a racial apartheid by the white Aryians, who migrated from Europe, against the Dravidians, the black indigenous Indian. He exposes the atrocities and inhumanity of this practice and urges the global community to rise and liberate the Indian outcasts, racially abused, as the world stood up to liberate the blacks of South Africa by dismantling the racial apartheid.
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Historical Development of Accounting and Ancient Civilisation: an Overview

The rapid changes in the field of accounting necessitate an occasional evaluation of the development in major areas to enable positive changes in the profession. Never in history has a particular contribution served to sharpen business the way accounting has done. Since the inception of trade and business, civilisation understood the need for accurate record keeping. This paper therefore examines the stages of development of accounting from ancient times and major contributions to the development of accounting.
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Historical Development of Accounting and Ancient Civilisation: an Overview

Author(s): IYAMU, B.E., AHMEDU, M. & ENOBHAYISOBO, I.E. (2009)
The rapid changes in the field of accounting necessitate an occasional evaluation of the development in major areas to enable positive changes in the profession. Never in history has a particular contribution served to sharpen business the way accounting has done. Since the inception of trade and business, civilisation understood the need for accurate record keeping. This paper therefore examines the stages of development of accounting from ancient times and major contributions to the development of accounting.
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Iconic Interpretation of Selected Bible Parables

Published at :Journal of the Nigeria Association for Semiotic Studies (JONASS)
The interpretation of spiritual verses in the Bible has been of interest to scholars. Different approaches have been used to illustrate and teach the dogma of the church as entailed in the teachings of Jesus Christ. Attempts to concretize these teachings have been at best mostly based on morphological and etymological illustrations. This article therefore seeks to interpret selected bible parables using the semiotic approach by providing iconic representation of some bible parables. This, we hope will give insights to the knowledge embedded in these bible parables, and by extension bible messages in general. This will provide new insights into the efficacy of iconic representations as a veritable means of spiritual interpretations. if careful and deliberate attempts are made by scholars and teachers of the gospel of Christ to interpret bible passages using semiotic approaches, the messages will become clearer and more relevant to our immediate environment and sensibilities.
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Impact of Anthocleista Vogelii Root Bark Ethanolic Extract on Weight Reduction in High Carbohydrate Diet Induced Obesity in Male Wistar Rats

Published at :African Journal of Biochemistry Research
Obesity increases the risk of developing a number of diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, stroke and heart attack. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ethanolic root bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii on weight reduction in high carbohydrate diet (HCD) induced obesity in male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were housed in three steel cages containing 10 rats each. For the period of obesity induction, Group 1 was fed with normal pellet diet (NPD), while Groups 2 and 3 were fed with HCD for 14 weeks. During the 4 weeks treatment period, Group 1 was fed with NPD, Groups 2 and 3 were fed with HCD, and only Group 3 received 500 mg/kg b.w A. vogelii extract. The ethanolic root bark extract of A. vogelii significantly decreased (P<0.05) food intake, body weight, total fat mass, adiposity index and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, but showed no significant difference (P<0.05) in body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol when compared with the HCD obese control. The results indicated that the ethanolic root bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii has potential to reduce weight in animals.
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Impact of Information Technology on Nomadic Education in Nigeria

In the face of the revolutionary trends taking place in information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Nigeria, there is now opportunity to embrace the use of information technology (IT) in learning to enhance the literacy rates among Nigerian’s nomadic people. The use of ipad, twitter, smartphones, cell phones, mobile phones, computers (Laptops, Palmtops and Desktops) are prevalent in many parts of Nigeria. The integration of information technology (IT) into nomadic education programme in Nigeria will ensure success of the programme, and remove the chronic illiteracy among the mobile population of Nigeria. This paper examined the impact of information technology on nomadic education and its implications for teaching-learning process. It was concluded that information technology tools are imperative for nomadic education. And recommendations were made to enhance nomadic education in Nigeria.
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Impact of the News Agency of Nigeria (nan) and Foreign News Agencies on the News and Information Flow of the Nigerian Press

Author(s): OBOH, G.E (2005)
Published at :International Journal of Communication, An interdisciplinary Journal of Communication Studies, Department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria, (3) pp. 207-214 (ISSN: 1597-4324)
The federal government, on May 10, 1976, set up the News Agency of Nigeria to redress the lopsided nature of the global news flow in the interest of Nigeria, promote national unity and lend support to government programmes and activities. The agency was, however, expected to achieve -these objectives by complementing the role of the Nigerian media. This study examined all the issues published in the month of May 2004 by The Guardian, Punch, This Day and Vanguard to determine the number of news stories NAN supplied to these papers. The findings revealed that of the 271 news agencies’ stories used by the papers, NAN only supplied 20. An evaluation of these findings with chi -square statistical tool disclosed that NAN had no significant impact on the Nigerian press.
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Impact of Urban Wastewaters on the Diversity and Abundance of the Fish Population of Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria Nigerian Journal Agriculture and Forestry (njaf), Vol. 4 No. 1: 194 - 109

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. AND ORONSAYE, J. E. O. (2014)
The effects of urban wastewaters on the diversity and abundance of the fish population of Ogba River in Benin City, Nigeria were assessed and monitored at 5 sample stations between November, 2011 and October, 2012. The physico- chemical properties of the water were monitored during the period. A total of 486 individual fishes made up of 26 different species were recorded, with Clarias macromystax (Clariidae); Malapterurus electricus (Malapteruridae); Xenomystus nigri (Notopteridae); Hemichromis fasciatus and Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae) being the dominant species. The water chemistry, fish diversity and abundance at the study stations were different and were negatively impacted upon by urban wastewaters pollution. It was also revealed that the fish communities of the river were under stress and not in good condition. Consequently, a close monitoring of all effluent discharges and other probable stress-inducing factors in Ogba River is recommended.
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In - Vitro Microbial Control of Pathogenic Sclerotium Rolfsii.

Author(s): BOSAH, O.; IGELEKE, C. L. AND OMORUSI, V. I. (2010)
Published at :International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 12: 474 - 476
In this study, pure cultures of three antagonistic fungi, Trichoderma , Penicillium and Aspergillus species and a fungal pathogen, Sclerotium sp. were obtained after inoculation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) fortified with antibiotics to prevent bacterial contamination. Pathogenicity test was carried out when the antagonistic isolates were inoculated on PDA, 24 h before and after Sclerotium inoculation. Of the three fungal antagonists evaluated for inhibitory efficacy, Trichoderma sp. proved to be the most effective as it exhibited the greatest inhibition to Sclerotium sp. ( P<0.01) both at the initial and final tests. This was closely followed by Aspergillus sp. with inhibitory effect on the pathogen at both trials (P<0.01). However, Penicillium sp. was slightly inhibitory against Sclerotium . Percentage inhibitions of the antagonists on Sclerotium by Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Penicillium were up to 81.36 - 80.29%, 88.35 - 73.12% and 56.98-46.24% at the 6th day of inhibition at both trials respectively. The result implied that the extent of inhibition by the fungi provides the use of potential antagonists capable of controlling the pathogenicity of Sclerotium sp. in crops for sustainable agriculture. Key Words: Microbial control; Antagonist; Pathogen; Percentage inhibition.
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In Press Oil Spill Management: a Review of the Management of Oil Spills in the Nigerian Shorelines, Rivers, Swamps and Lakes Nigerian Journal Agriculture and Forestry (njaf),

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. AND OJOGHO, O. (2015)
This paper reviewed oil spillages and the impacts on the Nigerian coastal and inland aquatic environment principally the shorelines, rivers, swamps and lakes which are located mainly in the Niger Delta region. Since oil exploration and exploitation activities started after Shell British Petroleum discovered oil in the Niger Delta, oil spillages have continued to impact on the aquatic flora and fauna and human life in the oil rich region. The paper also examined the response of the Nigerian government and the oil companies to the problem. It highlighted the various laws and regulations as well as the institutions established to regulate activities in the oil and gas industry and to manage the oil spillage problems in order to minimize impacts. The various strategies that can be adopted in the response and general management of oil spills including the roles of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the necessary follow up environmental impact amelioration techniques were highlighted. Finally, this paper reviewed various suggestions on the way forward in dealing with the problems of the oil and gas industry in Nigeria with regards to oil spillage, environmental degradation, youth militancy and oil theft prevalent in the oil rich Niger Delta and strongly recommended among others: re-orientation of the people on patriotism through the introduction of civic responsibility in the curriculum of the Nigerian education system, imposition of stricter penalties for environmental degradation and that the Nigerian government should go beyond the current command and control strategy in managing the oil and gas industries and get directly involved in oil spillage abatement.
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In Vitro Assessment of Antioxidant, Phytochemical and Nutritional Properties of Extracts from the Leaves of Ocimum Gratissimum (linn).

Published at :African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 10(5):292-298.
The antioxidant, phytochemical and nutritional properties of acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn) were investigated to evaluate the therapeutic and nutritional potential of the leaves of this plant. The antioxidant of the plant extracts were assessed against 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant.The extracts exhibited DPPH and ABTS.+ radical scavenging activities, which was comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponin, steroids, cardiacglycoside, flavonoid, terpenoids and phenol. The proximate analysis confirms that the leaves contain appreciable amount of ash, crude protein, lipids, fibre and carbohydrates. The macro and micro elements and constituents revealed that the leaves contain significant amount of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, copper, nitrogen, and manganese. This study shows that the leaf can be used as a therapeutic agent and justifies its application in folkloric medicine. Keywords: Ocimum gratissimum, oxidative stress, polyphenolic, proximate composition, therapeutic activity
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