547 Publications

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In-vitro Screening of Antibacterial Potentials of Aspilia Africana Leaves

Author(s): OSAZEE J. O., DANIEL O. E., OGUNSAN F. E., AND ELIMIAN O. K (2013)
Published at :The Bioscientist
In-vitro screening of antibacterial potentials of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Aspilia africana leaves was carried out using agar well diffusion method. Data obtained from this study indicated that the leaf extracts of A. africana possessed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The methanolic and ethanolic extract of A. africana showed antibacterial activity with the diameter of zone of inhibition of 9.0 - 16.0 mm and 7.17 - 14.17 mm against S. aureus, 8.0 – 14.67 mm and 8.83 - 13.17 mm against K. pneumonia and 7.0 - 14.0 mm and 7.50 - 12.33 mm against P. aeruginosa respectively. Methanolic extract of A. africana was observed to be more potent, inhibiting all isolates thus showing higher antibacterial activity than the ethanolic and aqueous extracts. The efficacy of the extracts was further exhibited as the S. aureus used for the study, was resistant to the positive control (gentamicin) while been sensitive to the extracts. The test organisms were not sensitive to the extractants alone. The efficacy of the extracts towards inhibition of the micro organisms increased with increased concentration. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the extracts on the test organisms also increased in the following order; aqueous < ethanolic < methanolic. Findings from this study further showed that plants are potential sources of new drugs for treating infections caused by these antibiotic resistant clinical pathogens
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Incentives and Reward for Effort: a Reappraisal

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. AND DJAGBO, J. U. (2007)
Published at :Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 49(1)
Previous studies in Nigeria indicate that while employees value opportunity for advancement in the Company, they tend to perceive fate or being the bosses’ favourite as viable paths to promotion or success. This study tested these findings in a different setting in Nigeria. Using the questions contained in a study by Oloko, 576 employees of six companies in the oil services sector in the Niger Delta area were surveyed. Results showed that while workers preferred jobs where they could work under a good boss, a majority perceived efforts and skill as the path to success. This suggests that the performance of workers in Nigeria as in other societies, can be enhanced by linking organizational rewards to the efforts by workers.
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Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections (uti) Among Children and Adolescents in Ile-ife, Nigeria.

Author(s): V. AIYEGORO, O.A., IGBINOSA, O.O., OGUNMWONYI, I.N., ODJADJARE, E.E., IGBINOSA, O.E. AND OKOH, A.I. (2007)
Published at :African Journal of Microbiological Research Vol. 1 (2), pp. 013-019 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJMR
This study was carried out in order to determine the incidence of urinary tract infection in children and adolescents, identify the uro-pathogens responsible for the infection and study the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the uro-pathogens. Clean voided mid-stream urine samples were collected in sterile universal bottles from 301 children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 18 years at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex (OAUTHC) Ile-Ife, Nigeria from December 2005 - July 2006. Culture plates with bacteria counts greater than or equal to 1x105 cfu-ml-1 were taken as positive, thus indicative of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). The bacteria isolates were identified based on colony morphology characteristics, Gram stain reaction and biochemical tests using API 20E kits. The identified bacteria were then tested in vitro with standard antibiotics disc to determine their antibiotics sensitivity patterns. The result of this study shows that 36 (11.96%) of the 301 patients studies had UTI. Of the 124 females examined, 28 (22.4%) had positive urine culture while 8 (4.56%) of the 177 males had significant bacteriuria. A total of 36 bacterial isolates were obtained. Escherichia coli constituted the predominant organism and was responsible for (52.77%) of the cases of UTI. This was followed by Klebsiella sp. (25%), Proteus mirabilis (13.89%), Streptococcus faecalis (5.56%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.78%). The antibiotics sensitivity test revealed a high level of resistant to cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin and colistin as more than 60% of the isolates were resistance to these. This study highlights the presence of multi-resistance P. aeruginosa and poor compliance of the pathogens in vitro to antibiotics commonly used in treating UTI. It is therefore suggested that appropriate antimicrobials be administered to reduce the risk of multiply resistance organisms developing and avert ineffectiveness of antibiotics. Prompt therapeutic intervention is also essential to prevent cases of asymptomatic UTI from becoming symptomatic with resultant damage. Keywords: UTI, uro-pathogens, antibiotic sensitivity.
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Incorporating Ngos in Microcredit Delivery: Prospect and Challenges in Delta State, Nigeria.

Author(s): S.O.E. ALAKPA AND E.A. ONEMOLEASE (2013)
Published at :Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, http://medwelljournals
The study assessed the prospects and challenges of using NGOs as strategy for micro-credit delivery using Shell Petroleum micro-credit scheme in Delta State, Nigeria for a case study. Ten NGOs involved in the implementation of the Shell micro-credit scheme were sampled. Data from 519 participants and non-participants in the scheme were analysed using frequency counts, mean and t-test. The study revealed that there was prospects in using NGO for micro-credit delivery as the income of participants in the NGO-managed scheme ( 282,895.14) was significantly higher than that of non-participants ( 165,971.54). However, a number of challenges were associated with this strategy namely: delay in service payment charge by the sponsoring agency, i.e., SPDC (mean = 4.00), difficulty in accessing communities (mean = 3.67), poor staff commitment (3.44) and failure of beneficiary group to adhere to loan management guidelines (= 3.22). Closer monitoring of the beneficiary groups by the NGOs and enforcement of appropriate selection criteria as well as provision of adequate logistics to improve NGO’s delivery was recommended.
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Industrial Development and Trade Liberalization in Nigeria: is There a Significant Correlation?

Author(s): DAVID UMORU & MATTHEW I. EBOREIME (2013)
Published at :Asian Journal of Empirical Research 3(4):493-509
This study investigates the relation between trade liberalization and industrial development in Nigeria. Adopted in the study is the human capital model of endogenous growth with modifications for trade liberalization within the Nigerian context. In the empirical investigation, co-integration and error correction estimation approaches were carried out with the aid of the Generalized Method of Moments [GMM] estimator. A unique co-integration between industrial development and the explanatory variables in the study is found. In order to determine the short-run dynamics around the equilibrium relationship, we estimated an error correction model [ECM]. The empirical findings in this study have it that there is a positive and significant correlation between trade liberalization and industrial development in Nigeria, structural deregulation had positive impact on industrial development in Nigeria, Nigerian industries are labour intensive, industrial production responded negatively and insignificantly to capital formation in Nigeria, industrial development is cumulative and self-sustaining in Nigeria. The result however does not provide evidence of significance of structural deregulation over the period of short-run analysis. The results of the study suggest the need for government to embark on comprehensive implementation of trade liberalization policies in order to accelerate and sustain industrial development in Nigeria. However, the implementation of trade liberalization polices should be gradual.
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Information and Communication Technology in Electronics Engineering in Nigeria: Impacts, Challenges and Constraints. the Engineering Telescope

Author(s): AKHIDENO O.I AND EZEWELE S.E (2007)
Today’s Information Communication Technology (ICT) designers strive to improve the services rendered to customers within resource and cost constraints. There is also the recognition that the uptake of ICT in Electronics Engineering services will significantly contribute to the overall expansion and market opportunities in the developing countries like Nigeria. This paper is intended to explore the impacts, challenges and constraints of ICT in Electronics Engineering and profound some recommendations to Nigeria environment.
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Information and Computer Technology (ict) and Banks Operations in Nigeria

Author(s): BEAUTY EKIOMADO EGUASA (2013)
The paper examined the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on banks operations in Nigeria. In order to actualise the set objectives data was generated from primary and secondary source. The mass of information generated from the questionnaire was summarised inform of tables and analysed using SPSS 20.0 (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences). The convenience sampling method was adopted and one hundred (100) questionnaires were administered to five (5) selected quoted banks in the Nigeria Stock Exchange, out of which eighty seven (87) were retrieved. The findings revealed that information and computer technology influence increased performance rate in the Nigerian banking sector.
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Information and Computer Technology (ict) and Banks Operations in Nigeria

Author(s): IYAMU, B.E. & IYAMU, E. (2014)
The paper examined the impact of information and communication technology (ICT)on banks operations in Nigeria. In order to actualise the set objectives data was generated from primaryand secondary source. The mass of information generated from the questionnaire was summarised inform of tables and analysed using SPSS 20.0 (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences). The convenience sampling method was adopted and one hundred (100) questionnaires were administered to five (5) selected quoted banks in the Nigeria Stock Exchange, out of which eighty seven (87) were retrieved. The findings revealed that information and computer technology influence increased performance rate in the Nigerian banking sector. Keywords: Information and computer technology. Banks operations
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Inhibitory Effect of Some Potential Leaf Extracts on Some Root Pathogens

Author(s): OMORUSI, V. I.; BOSAH, B. O.; EGUAVOEN, I. O.; OSEMWENGIE, O.; OGBEBOR, N. O. AND IGELEKE, C. L. (2014)
Published at :American Journal of Research Communication 2(11):114 - 125
The efficacy of four potential leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata (Stain weed), Ocimum gratissimum (Shrubby bacil) and Cymbopogon giganteus (Lemon grass) on some fungal root pathogens of Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniloforme, Rigidoporus lignosus and Trichoderma sp. were investigated in-vitro. The varied concentrations of the extracts at the rates of 5, 20, 60 and 100 g/l impacted levels of inhibition on the root pathogens. At all levels of concentration, Chromolaena odorata consistently reduced and inhibited the growth of Fusarium most prominently (P<0.01), and with slight inhibitory effects on Aspergillus and Trichoderma (P<0.05) especially at the lowest concentration (5g/l). However, effects of extracts at all concentrations failed to produce any discernable inhibition on Rigidoporus. Microscopic observation of the test pathogens are dicpicted for their structural characteristics. The present study reveals the inhibitory effects of the leaf extracts on root pathogens and the most efficacious extract are discussed for sustainable agriculture. Key Words: Plant extracts, Root pathogens, Inhibitory effects, Varied concentrations of extracts.
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Inspectorate Manpower Needs for Secondary Schools – a Case Study of Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria.

Author(s): AWULOR, B. N. (2014)
This paper examines the manpower needs for the supervisor of secondary school in Ethiope west Local government Area of Delta State. Five research questions were formulated for the research. The population of the study consisted of all the inspectors of Education of the ministry of Education in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State. The Chief Inspectors of Education and five deputies took part in the exercise. A questionnaire titled “Adequacy of inspectors of education for supervision of secondary school” was used to collect necessary data. The data was analyzed using simple percentages. The results of the analysis of data revealed that there were inadequate inspectors of Education in the inspectorate division of the Ministry of Education for the supervision of secondary schools in the Local Government Area under study. The Qualifications and experience of inspectors met with the required standard for the supervision of schools. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made: faculties of education in Universities should make concerted efforts to expand their postgraduate programmes to include the training of inspectors for the inspectorate division of the ministries of Education to meet the growing needs for Inspectors of Education for schools. Experience specialist in subject areas could be used also in the inspectorate to ensure effective supervision in the schools.
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Inter-firm Relations: Networks, Networking and Their Variants- a Nigerian Perspective

Author(s): OGUNRIN F.O., INEGBENEBOR A.U. AND AGBADUDU A.B. (2012)
Published at :Nigerian Academy of Management Journal, 6(2), 83-93
The assertion that private enterprises constitute a major driver of national economic development has been convincingly established. It has indeed been noted that economic development is most sustainable when an economy is undergirded by its own small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as opposed to foreign-owned businesses-as useful as they are. Entrepreneurs, that is, those individuals who create and run SMEs are much revered because through their entrepreneurial activities, development benefits of job creation, poverty reduction, innovation, as well as improvements in productivity, national income and living standards, among others, are unleashed within national economies. Because of these critical contributions, developed and developing countries alike strive to nurture dynamic SME sectors, through various forms of support such as financing, training, and many others. This paper considers another approach to nurturing SMEs; and this approach revolves round helping entrepreneurs appreciate the need for banding together in various forms of inter-firm relations. In other words, besides the usefulness of institutional assistance from the state and external donors, much growth comes from cooperative activities of entrepreneurs themselves. This paper therefore considers the prospects, challenges and strategies for improvements in inter-firm relations within the Nigerian context.
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Inter-generational Transition: Survival and Growth of Family Business in Nigeria

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. (2002)
Published at :Nigerian Management Review, 13(1&2), 967-976
A smooth and painless shift in the ownership and control of family businesses from the founding entrepreneur to a successor is critical to the long run survival of such businesses and the growth of the economy. However founder entrepreneurs face enormous emotional, financial and socio-cultural difficulties in considering inter-generational transition. To achieve successful transition requires adequate preparation, restructuring of the enterprise and emotional support for the founder entrepreneur as he/she launches into a new beginning and a new purpose in life.
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Interaction Effects of Product Lifetime and Shortage Cost on the Proposed Fixed Lifetime Inventory Model

Author(s): ENAGBONMA. O AND ERAIKHUEMEN I.B (2010)
Published at :“South East Asian Journal Of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences” Vol.8, No.3(2010) pp. 11-23”
This paper presents a proposed cost model for the inventory system with fixed lifetime. We were particularly interested in the interaction effects of “Product lifetime and shortage cost on the proposed fixed lifetime inventory model’. The results observed agree with what one would expect. Key words: Fixed lifetime , Expected cost model, Shortage cost, Inventory system
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Intestine to Standard Length Ratios and Food Habits of Some Fish Species from Ibiekuma Stream, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Aplied Science Vol. 30: 237 - 245 (issn 0795-1353)

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E.; ISIDAHOME, C. E. AND OBASOHAN, E. E (2012)
The intestine to standard length of five fishes from Ibiekuma Stream, Ekpoma, Nigeria were estimated in this study. The mean ratios of the fishes were 8.38 (Oreochromis niloticus), 7.5 (Tiliapia mariae0 0.31 (Papyrocranus afer), 0.5 (Parachanna obscura) and 1.65 (Malapterurus electricus). Based on the estimated ratios, O. niloticus and T. mariae were classified as herbivores while P. afer and P. obscura were classified as carnivores and M. electricus was classified as omnivore tending towards carnivore. The results revealed that among the herbivores, O. niloticus showed preference for algal diet while T. mariae preferred higher plant materials and among the carnivores, P. afer preferred fish food items, while P. obscura preferred insect diets. M. electricus also preferred insect diets. It was further revealed that irrespective of the feeding habits, the fishes consumed a wide variety of food items. This phenomenon was interpreted as an adaptive strategy for survival occasioned by competition for same food items in overlapping niches as exist among the carnivores, the herbivores, the omnivores and between them.
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Intramolecular Fatty Acid Distribution in Triacylglycerols of Fractions Derived from Acetone Fractionation of Palm Oil

Author(s): FRED O.J. OBOH (2007)
Published at :Nigerian Journal of Palms and Oilseeds
Nigerian Journal of Palms and Oilseeds 2007 16: 48-58 Abstract The distribution of fatty acids in the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of four fractions derived from palm oil by a cold acetone fractionation was determined. Palmitic (40.5-63.8%) and oleic (24.6-41.6%), were the major fatty acids in the TAGs, with smaller amounts of stearic (4.3-6.3%, linoleic (3.8-11.5%), myristic (1.4-2.8%), lauric and (0.1-0.4%) acids. Palmitic and stearic acids exhibited a strong preference for the combined 1, 3- positions of the TAGs of all the fractions, while lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids were preferentially esterified to the 2- position. Myristic acid was preferentially esterified to the 2- position of the TAGs of the stearin and olein fractions, to the combined 1, 3- positions of the palm mid-fraction (PMF) TAGs, and was randomly distributed among the 1,2- and 3- positions of the superolein TAGs The implications of the intramolecular fatty acid distribution in the TAGs of the fractions for their oxidative stability, phase behavior in food systems and metabolism in organisms are discussed.
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Investing in Education and the Challenges of Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: Possible Remedies

Author(s): HEPHZIBAH- AWULOR, B. N. (2014)
The study examines investing in education and the issue of graduate unemployment in Nigeria, which has become a national concern as the unemployed youths tend to be unhappy with their attendant sleeplessness than those with jobs. This problem has not only posed a great challenge to the economy but also retarded the economic growth of the country. The graduate unemployment in Nigeria is attributable to the fact that employees’ education and skills acquired are inadequate to meet the demands of modern day jobs. The study found that inadequate technical knowledge, deficient English proficiency and lack of critical thinking on the part of graduate employees coupled with high technological drive of most organizations in response to tougher competition in the competitive markets are the factors responsible for graduate unemployment in Nigeria. The study therefore recommended that the issue should be seriously addressed by taking a three-dimensional approach that involves the tertiary institutions, the government, and the labour market. This can be done by planning their curriculum in such a way that employable skills that match up to the requirement of jobs in the present day work place are inculcated into students while undergoing their courses of studies.
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Investors’ Perceptions of the Relevance of Credit Transactions Disclosure in Income Statement

Author(s): OBASI, ROSEMARY AND EKWUEME, CHIZOBA (2011)
Published at :International Research Journal of Finance and Economics issue
This study focuses on assessing investors opinions on the RAFS (Relevance, Adequacy and Financial sustainability) of credit transactions disclosures in the income statement. It specifically assessed the investors’ choice of RAFS in relation to two income statements (i.e the Traditional Income Statement (TIS) and the proposed Two Column Profit and Loss Account (TCPLA). The survey methodology was adopted and questionnaires were drawn to elicit information from investors in Edo state. Four hundred (400) investors were sampled. The mean scores of the investors’ perceptions were analyzed and the t- test statistics was explored to test the hypotheses. The study found out that investors clamor for change in the TIS. Also, investors perceive both TIS and TCPLA to be relevant and financially sustainable while TCPLA was perceived to be more adequate than the TIS. These findings led the researcher to conclude and recommend a change in accounting reporting paradigm towards the disclosure of credit transactions.
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Iron and Zinc Contents of Selected Vegetable Foods

Author(s): UZOEKWE N.M, UKHUN, M.E. (2007)
Published at :Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology (NIFST)
Some vegetable foods were analysed for iron and zinc, on wet and dry weight basis, using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS model: Solaar 969 Unicam Series). The concentration measured ranged between 42.2mgFe/kg found in Citrullus vulgaris schrad to be 2145.3mgFe/kg, measured in Piper guineense and 26.0mgZn/kg in Murraya koenigii for wet weight basis. For the dry weight basis, 76.4 – 10752.7 mgFe/kg and 67.3 – 655.5mgZn/kg ranges were determined for iron and zinc respectively. For all the vegetables, Fe/Zn ratio, iron concentrations appeared to be more than zinc that is why the values are more than unity.
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Issue of Jurisdiction and Locus Standi Under the Electoral Act 2006

Author(s): JESUOROBO E. IDUGBOE ESQ. LL.B. (HONS.) IFE, (2006)
This article deals with jurisdiction and locus standi as it relates to trials of election petitions under the Electoral Act 2006 in Nigeria. Election is the formal process of selecting or choosing a person for public office or accepting or rejecting political manifestoes or proposals, by voting. Trial here denotes adjudication or determination of an election petition. . Jurisdiction is the power of a court to hear a particular matter between parties. Usually, this power is specified by the statute or constitution creating the court. It would also include the penal power of a court. Where a court tries a matter which it has no jurisdiction to try the entire trial is a nullit. Locus standi on the other hand is the power of a person to bring an action or a petition in court. It is not everyone that can file an election petition in court. Access to court in this respect is restricted by law to candidates who actually contested the election or parties who fielded candidates in the election. If a person who has no locus standi to file an election petition does so the petition will be struck out . Election petition is a means of seeking justice in a tribunal or court after an undeserved defeat in an election by an opponent who either was not qualified to participate in the election or engaged in an electoral malpractice to emerge victorious in the election, among other things. A trial in this context means the adjudication of an election petition in a court of competent jurisdiction. Detailed discussion of jurisdiction and locus standi will be made in subsequent paragraphs.
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Ïssues and Challenges in Private University Education in Africa: Funding of Private Universities in Nigeria.

Author(s): OMOREGIE, N. O (2011)
This paper examines the funding of Private Universities in Nigeria. The Federal Government
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Ivie Folk Poetry: a Study in Poetic Grammer

Author(s): RICHARD A. MASAGBO (1990)
Ivie (Northern ibie by official designation) is one of the dialect cluster of the Northern Edoid language of the Kwa group language. It is a tonal language. IN this article, we try to show the phonological, morphological, as well as prosodic determinants of versification in Ivie. The phonic effect of alliterative repetition and clausal arrangement within the verse create some mnemonic effect which is vital for the spoken perfomance.
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Jainism: an ‘unknown’ Indian Religion of Great Significance

Author(s): DR UMEJESI INNOCENT OGONNA (1998)
The author argues that Jainism is an Indian religion which has a lot to offer to mankind but it is little known. He projects the main teachings of the religion as ahimsa (non-violence), equality of all men relativity of knowledge. He informs the reader that the religion, founded by Mahavira, is a protest religion against the excesses of Hinduism. His teachings influenced many Indian and Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) appropriated them to fight for the Independence of India in 1947.
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Job Creation and Human Resource Development: an End to Unemlopment Phenomenon in Nigeria

Author(s): JOHNSON AGBONAVBARE OSAIGBOVO, (PH. D) (2013)
This paper examines government’s employment policies that addressed job creation, the challenges and human resource development and its implications for the teeming unemployed Nigerians. The problem of job creation in Nigeria to effectively manage the abounding human and material resources in Nigeria was uppermost and became the driving motive for the establishment of the Federal Ministry Labour and Productivity in October, 1979. Nigeria’s employment policy is geared towards addressing the related problems of high unemployment, more especially as it affects the youth implosion in the country. It was in consideration of this arduous-policy objectives that the Federal Ministry of Labour was established and since then, several Nigerian administrations have tinkered with how to manage the available human resources of the country beginning from formal, informal and more crucially, vocational education.
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Jurisprudence on Cyber Warfare; Paradigm Shift in Modern Warfare Regulation

Author(s): OBOKHAI L. OBADAN (2014)
Published at :Igbinedion University Journal of Jurisprudence & International Law Vol. 1
This paper examines Cyber warfare and the state of Regulatory instrument in the light of its unprecedented capacities and complexities. It brings to fore that Warfare has transcended conventional platforms and strategies and emphasizes that this new phenomenon thrives in the Cyberspace and on the internet thus threatens the very survival of the Human species. It explores the various Mechanisms and Strategies employed by Countries in cyber warfare. It also considers that the basis for this phenomenon hinges on Countries’ need to maintain their sovereignty and protect their territorial integrity. This paper further, examines plethora of laws and legal policies adopted in/by Countries. This works therefore recommends the need for a general agreement among countries aim at regulating cyber warfare. In addition, we argue that relevant aspects of International law and International humanitarian law on war be adopted to cyber warfare were practicable. Conclusively, cyber warfare is a dynamic and complex reality with tremendous global influence as such the need to create universal mechanism for its control and management becomes imperative.
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Jurisprudence on Cyber Warfare; Paradigm Shift in Modern Warfare Regulation

Author(s): OBOKIA L. OBADAN AND OJIEIFO. EIKHENOMIAN (2014)
Published at :Igbinedion University Okada, Journal of Jurisprudence and International Law. Vol.1 [2014] Pg.304
JURISPRUDENCE ON CYBER WARFARE; PARADIGM SHIFT IN MODERN WARFARE REGULATION ** Abstract This paper examines Cyber warfare and the state of Regulatory instrument in the light of its unprecedented capacities and complexities. It brings to fore that Warfare has transcended conventional platforms and strategies and emphasizes that this new phenomenon thrives in the Cyberspace and on the internet thus threatens the very survival of the Human species. It explores the various Mechanisms and Strategies employed by Countries in cyber warfare. It also considers that the basis for this phenomenon hinges on Countries' need to maintain their sovereignty and protect their territorial integrity. This paper further, examines plethora of laws and legal policies adopted by Countries. This works therefore recommends the need for a general agreement among countries aim at regulating cyber warfare. In addition, we argue that relevant aspects of International law and International humanitarian law on war be adopted to cyber warfare were practicable. Conclusively, cyber warfare is a dynamic and complex reality with tremendous global influence as such the need to create a universal mechanism for its control and management becomes. Imperative. Keywords: Cyber warfare, cyber worms, Information and communication technology, Talim Manual, International Law and Humanitarian law Introduction: Information Communication Technology is credited with the advancement of human life; it is also evolving as the new international threat to governments. Cyber warfare is a new type of war that has the potential to alter modem warfare significantly. Computer technologies have advanced to the point where military forces now have the capability to inflict injury, death and destruction via cyberspace. There is today significant concern that hostile foreign governments could launch computer based attacks on critical national or regional systems. Cyber warfare can range from relatively innocuous web vandalism to severe attacks on critical national infrastructure. The resultant damage can vary, depending 9n the type and extent of the
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