547 Publications

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Jurisprudence on Cyber Warfare; Paradigm Shift in Modern Warfare Regulation

Author(s): OBOKIA L. OBADAN AND OJIEIFO. EIKHENOMIAN (2014)
Published at :Igbinedion University Okada, Journal of Jurisprudence and International Law. Vol.1 [2014] Pg.304
JURISPRUDENCE ON CYBER WARFARE; PARADIGM SHIFT IN MODERN WARFARE REGULATION ** Abstract This paper examines Cyber warfare and the state of Regulatory instrument in the light of its unprecedented capacities and complexities. It brings to fore that Warfare has transcended conventional platforms and strategies and emphasizes that this new phenomenon thrives in the Cyberspace and on the internet thus threatens the very survival of the Human species. It explores the various Mechanisms and Strategies employed by Countries in cyber warfare. It also considers that the basis for this phenomenon hinges on Countries' need to maintain their sovereignty and protect their territorial integrity. This paper further, examines plethora of laws and legal policies adopted by Countries. This works therefore recommends the need for a general agreement among countries aim at regulating cyber warfare. In addition, we argue that relevant aspects of International law and International humanitarian law on war be adopted to cyber warfare were practicable. Conclusively, cyber warfare is a dynamic and complex reality with tremendous global influence as such the need to create a universal mechanism for its control and management becomes. Imperative. Keywords: Cyber warfare, cyber worms, Information and communication technology, Talim Manual, International Law and Humanitarian law Introduction: Information Communication Technology is credited with the advancement of human life; it is also evolving as the new international threat to governments. Cyber warfare is a new type of war that has the potential to alter modem warfare significantly. Computer technologies have advanced to the point where military forces now have the capability to inflict injury, death and destruction via cyberspace. There is today significant concern that hostile foreign governments could launch computer based attacks on critical national or regional systems. Cyber warfare can range from relatively innocuous web vandalism to severe attacks on critical national infrastructure. The resultant damage can vary, depending 9n the type and extent of the
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Just in Time and Service Quality.

Author(s): OISAMOJE, M. D. AND WOGU E. ONYEKACHI (2014)
Published at :IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 19(1), Ver. VI, (January,2014), 48-53.
Every business entity strives to be cost efficient in spite of stiff competition. This is in order to remain profitably in business and possibly distinguish itself. The just-in-time (JIT) approach is x-rayed as it applies not only to manufacturing or production industries but also to the services industry. This is because it relates to processes involved before its final delivery. It’s meanings as put forward by various individuals and bodies were expressed. The importance of JIT as it relates to improved service quality was highlighted and the challenges of its implementation by management were discussed. Some models were used to illustrate JIT in services. The paper rounds up with conclusions as to the need for total embrace of what JIT offers to businesses in the services industry. How to mitigate the challenges affecting the capability of Nigerian firms to apply JIT principles and strategies were also recommend. Keywords- Just in time (JIT), processes, relevance, services industry, service quality
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Knowledge Spillover Versus Economic Bonding Theory: the Inclinations of Nigerian Auditing Firms

Author(s): OBASI, R. AND OKOYE, E.I. (2012)
Published at : Middle Eastern Finance and Economics issue
This paper examine the inclinations of the Nigerian auditing firms to the various theories on auditor independence i.e. the Knowledge Spill over (KSo) and Economic Bonding (EB) theories. Researches have been conducted in different countries by different researchers ascertaining which theory their auditors would support. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the bent of mind of the Nigerian auditing firms.The survey questionnaire was employed to elicit information from auditors. Four states across the poles of the nation formed the population of the study from which the sample was drawn. One hundred and one questionnaires were distributed and sixty-two were retrieved, representing sixty-one percent. The mean scores were used to analyze the data and the t-test and z-test statistics were employed to test the hypotheses using stata 9 software. The study finds that, Nigerian auditing firms are in support of the KSo theory. This finding was only supported by the variable size while, the other two variables (experience and regulating institution) did not support the theory. We therefore recommend strict regulatory follow ups to ensure adherence to the Nigeria’s corporate governance requirements.
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La Civilisation : AperÇu GÉnÉral

Author(s): OGIRIKI, A. R. (2009)
Published at :ZAJOLA (ZARIA JOURNAL OF LIBERAL ARTS),
L’histoire de la civilisation démontre l’homme primitif, sauvage dans son état naturel, tâtonnant ses environnements pour la survie et, ainsi découvrant les manières diverses de se subsister. Au cours des décennies, il se voit développé, voire transformé, à l’homme moderne bien cultivé et technologiquement avancé pour affranchir les défis du monde actuel imprégné de haute technicité. Ce travail vise à donner, d’une manière générale, un aperçu général de l’histoire du commencement de l’homme et son évolution, les berceaux ou les origines de la civilisation et la civilisation gréco-romaine, la civilisation du monde actuel qui comprend la civilisation africaine, la civilisation orientale et la civilisation occidentale. Il parle aussi des éléments de la civilisation, à travers le réseau de la culture comme : la langue, la science, la religion, l’art et les mœurs. Ainsi, il expose comment l’homme a pu se développer pour survivre dans le monde.
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La Police Et La PÈgre

Author(s): OGIRIKI, A. R. (2010)
Published at :IRORO: JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF ARTS
La police et la pègre sont deux groupes différents d’individus dans la société qui s’engagent aux activités entièrement différentes. Ce travail comprend les deux groupes. D’abord, il parle de la police, le travail de la police en général et les conséquences de la présence de la police dans la société. Il parle aussi de la pègre, l’origine et les types d’individus dits la pègre, le travail ou les activités de la pègre et des conséquences de leur présence dans la société. Il met à nu le rapport entre les deux en démontrant jusqu’à quels points la police et la pègre sont liées. Ainsi, le travail vise à ramener au rapport police-pègre à cause de la lutte et, parfois, la collaboration entre eux, et le degré du succès de la police dans la cessation des activités de la pègre.
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La SociÉtÉ Étrange Chez Albert Camus : Le Cas De L’Étranger

Author(s): OGIRIKI, A. R. (2009)
Published at :AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ARTS AND CULTURAL STUDIES, NSUKKA
Publié en 1942, le roman L’ÉTRANGER d’Albert Camus donne un tableau d’événements en Algérie qui évoquent la situation politique depuis la colonisation. La situation était celle d’injustice d’humiliation et de la misère. Le roman témoigne aussi les injustices sociales et politiques les plus écrasantes subisses par les Algériens sous l’administration française. Albert Camus met à nu la dictature de la société. Ainsi, il présente la société comme étrange et comment l’étrangeté de la société pèse sur l’homme, conditionne sa pensée et comportement et, comme résultat, lui donne un sentiment de l’étrangeté. Le travail est donc consacré à l’étude de la société étrange dans laquelle vit le héros du roman Meursault. Il démontre comment la société le nie parce qu’il refuse de jouer son jeu. Il parle aussi de la nature qui joue le rôle du destin fatal et se joint à la société pour conduire Meursault à la mort brutale dans la guillotine, à travers un jugement étrange. Bref, il démontre jusqu’à quels points la société est étrange et ses effets sur l’homme étrange.
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La Theologie Des Premiers Missionnaires Chretiens Au Nigeria : Une Critique

Author(s): ABU, OMOREGIE PATRICK & ABU, EUNICE ONYENMWEN (2012)
Published at :SAU JOURNAL vol1 no.1
Les premiers missionnaires chrétiens en Afrique sont venus avec un sens de supériorité et une religion qui posait des problèmes aux africains. Pour l’Africain, la religion c’est la vie. On vit et soupire sa religion. C’est quotidien. Mais les premiers missionnaires n’ont pas pris le soin de garder et exploiter le caractère africain en bâtissant la première église .Cette communication s’intéresse aux activités des premiers missionnaires chrétiens, leur disposition théologique et leur rapport avec les Africains pour qu’on ne répète ni continue dans les erreurs des premiers missionnaires.
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Le Jeu Et Le TÉmoignage Dans Le Petit Prince D’antoine De Saint ExupÉry

Author(s): OGIRIKI, A. R. (2009)
Published at :ZAJOLA (ZARIA JOURNAL OF LIBERAL ARTS)
Publié en 1943, Le Petit Prince d’Antoine de Saint Exupéry est un compte rendu de la vie réelle et les expériences amères et désastreuses d’un aviateur présenté sous forme du jeu d’un enfant isolé dans le désert. L’auteur présente sa propre vie comme un jeu et un témoignage, en employant les raisonnements supposés enfantins mais vraiment sérieux et du niveau très élevé, car il veut à tout prix être pris au sérieux. II condamne le comportement des adultes, en présentant les derniers comme ceux qui sont moins sérieux que les enfants. Ce faisant, il dresse un catalogue de comparaisons entre les adultes et les enfants. Ce travail vise donc à exposer la manière de laquelle l’auteur présente l’histoire de sa vie réelle, voire son témoignage, à travers la narration d’un enfant qui apparaît comme un jeu. Nous traiterons ce sujet, le jeu et le témoignage dans Le Petit Prince, en suivant la cohérence de la narration.
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Le Rapport Homme-Énergie À Travers L’histoire

Author(s): OGIRIKI, A. R. (2009)
Published at :AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ARTS AND CULTURAL STUDIES
Ce travail porte sur l’énergie et son rapport avec l’homme. Il parle du commencement de l’homme tout primitif et sans aucun moyen de survivre, mais qui, ayant vu la nécessité de manger et de se soutenir, commence à découvrir des moyens utiles à se débrouiller. Il parle donc du développement de l’homme par rapport à l’énergie qui devient son soutien dans tous les aspects de sa vie. Il parle des premières découvertes de l’énergie, des inventions avancées, des sources d’énergies diverses, leurs origines et leurs usages. C’est plutôt l’histoire de l’énergie au cours des décennies, les moyens de sa découverte, ses avantages à l’homme et le taux de consommation par rapport à la population mondiale. Etant un pays producteur de l’énergie, notre pays, le Nigéria et ses sources d’énergie disponibles à l’homme font partie de ce travail ainsi que les sources d’énergies renouvelables.
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Least Square Approximation of Percentage Body Fat for Black Women

Author(s): EGUASA, O., ERAIKHUEMEN, I. B. AND EHIGIE, L. (2013)
Published at :Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling, International Institute of Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). 3(14): 135-144.
ABSTRACT This work analyzes the least square model describing the response variable (Percentage Body Fat) with two independent variables, the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the Skin-fold. We show that with little disturbance of the model, generated six parameters which approximate the percentage body fat. The result obtained from MATLAB inbuilt function was compared with that of MAPLE programming and the approximation of the model was significantly equal. We also considered the goodness of fit test, the test hypothesis at five percent level of significance for . It was discovered that it was a good fit for the three values of Z. The significance of the test shows that where less than the critical points, hence falls within the acceptance region of the . Key words: Body Mass index, Skin-fold, percentage body fat, essential body fat, storage body fat, bioelectrical impedance analysis.
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Legacy of Denominational Rivalry in the Former Eastern Nigeria

Author(s): DR UMEJESI INNOCENT OGONNA (2007)
The paper agues that the early Christian missionaries succeeded so much in the former Eastern Region that it can be described as the abode of Christianity vis-à-vis the other religions of Colonia Nigeria. The success was mainly through the school apostolate which provided Western education which conferred wealth and prestige on the educated class. Incidentally there was denominational rivalry between Catholics and other protestant denominations that nearly lead to a religious war as in Northern Ireland but for the Nigeria-Biafra war. Yet the rivalry lead, among other factors, to the collapse of Biafra as the Head of State, Ojukwu, was a catholic and the catholic church played a very prominent role in Biafra. So, Protestants became lukewarm and sabotaged the war of liberation.
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Legal Reasoning in Legislation*

Author(s): J.E. IDUGBOE ESQ. L.L.B.(HONS) IFE, L.L.M. JOS, B.L., (2012)
In this chapter, we shall examine the various components of legal reasoning in legislation which includes the passage of bills into law, the policy behind legislative enactments, legislative drafting, and the use of semantics, logic, judicial precedents and analogy in legislation and judicial decision making processes. Legislation generally is the end product of the process of law making in a constitutional democracy. Thus, the term “Legislation” can be used interchangeably with the terms “Statute”, “enactment”, “Law” and “Acts of Parliament”1. The law making power of the legislature is exercised through the passage of bills which are initial drafts of what may eventually become statutes. A bill proposes either a change in the existing law or makes new legislative proposal.
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Liberal Judicial Interpretation of Defamation Laws in Free Speech Cases*

Author(s): *JESUOROBO E. IDUGBOE ESQ. LL.B.(HONS) IFE, LL.M. JOS, B.L., (2013)
This paper looks at the chilling effect that defamation law has on information flow to the market place of ideas and analyzes how the courts in the United States, India, Canada, the UK, Australia and the European Court on Human Rights(ECHR) have through dexterity and innovative decisions enlarged the freedom of speech with regards to defamation laws.This is done in such a way that government at all levels cannot sue; but public officials, public figures and political parties can bring an action for defamation committed against them while in office. But the onus is on them to prove actual malice on the part of the defendant to obtain favourable judgment; however, this is not easy to prove.. Designed to protect reputation, defamation law prohibits statements that would make a reasonable person think less of their subject. While most people agree it is intended to serve a legitimate purpose, political bodies and public figures often abuse it to silence their critics Over the past fifteen years, national and international courts have developed a body of case law that seeks to reduce defamation’s chilling effect on freedom of expression, a right guaranteed in treaties and constitutions around the world. Courts in democratic countries have played an especially significant role in this reform process because free speech is vital to their political system. Nigeria will benefit immensely if her courts join in this attitudinal change.
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Long-tail Probability and Probability Generating Function.

Author(s): EGUASA, O. AND ERAIKHUEMEN I.B. (2013)
Published at :Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics.23:599-608.
ABSTRACT In this paper, we proposed the use of long-tail probabilities P(X?j)= t_j and P(X>j)= q_(j ) which depends on the probability P(X=j)= p_j to give the respective sum of Generally, as the sum will be . Keywords: pdf, long- tail probabilities, right and left hand probabilities, generating functions, probability distribution.
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Malaria Parasitaemia and Anaemia Among Pregnant Women Attending a Secondary Health Care Facility in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

Author(s): WOGU, M.D. AND OBASOHAN, H.O. (2014)
Published at :American – Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 9(4), 76-81
Three hundred women, comprising 250 pregnant individuals attending clinic and 50 non – pregnant volunteers at a secondary health facility in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, were recruited for this study. Their blood samples were collected and examined for malaria parasites and packed – cell volume estimation, using standard methods. The overall prevalence of malaria Parasitaemia for the pregnant women was 19.2% while that of the non – pregnant women (Controls) was 12% (P <0.05). A significant relationship was established between malaria parasitaemia and age of pregnant women. The highest prevalence of 35.8% was recorded in the third trimester while the first trimester was least with 4.7%. The difference in prevalence among the trimesters was significant (P<0.05). In the gravidity groups, primigradidae and multigradidae recorded 21.4% and 16.2% prevalence of malaria parasitaemia respectively. Pregnant women recorded a 47.4% prevalence of severe anaemia while non-pregnant women recorded no case (0%) of severe anaemia. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The findings from this study, carried out on subjects in an urban setting will be useful for further planning, delivery and evaluation of malaria control efforts especially during pregnancy.
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Management Theory, Models and Principles: a Synthesis of Some Evidence in Nigeria

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. (1999)
Published at :ASCON Journal of Management, 18(1&2), 1-19
Management as practiced in Nigeria is seen as a relatively young science. Hence, it is still at a formative stage. In this paper, the concepts of theory, principles and models in management and their relationships are explained. The nexus between theories of organisational behaviour, organization theory and management theory is analysed. The sparse literature on the development and application of management theory in Nigeria in the areas of ethnicity, culture, motivation and leadership are reviewed. The need for more empirical studies on management theory in Nigeria is highlighted and areas that may be focused upon by researchers are suggested.
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Managing the Strategic Challenges of Small Business Enterprises (sbes) in Emerging African Economies: the Case of Nigeria.

Author(s): ADEDOYIN, S.A. AND IKEBUDU, D.C. (2012)
Published at :Trend Journal of Management and Social Sciences
This paper looks retrospectively at small business enterprise operations in Nigeria as an emerging African economy. The varied strategic challenges inimical to small business growth and overall development were highlighted and the operating environment x-rayed. it is our submission that there is an urgent need to address issues of policy deficiencies and somersaults, fiscal indiscipline, corruption, infrastructural decay and a need for urgent diversification of the revenue sources of the economy. Our firm view is that with prompt and apprropriate economic policy interventions of government Nigeria is potentially capable of achieving her dreams of being one of the 20 largest economies of the world by the year 2020 as there are vast potentials for small business enterprises (SBEs) development and foreign direct investment opportunities in the areas of agriculture, solid minerals, manufacturing, tourism, telecommunication, natural gas etc. To achieve this feat, inimical militating factors against business development must be urgently and decisively addressed.
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Mathematical Model of Application of Matrices in the Solution of Differential Equation.

Author(s): ERAIKHUEMEN I.B. AND ENAGBONMA. O (2004)
Published at : BIU Journal Of Social & Management Sciences
In this paper, an attempt is made to model matrices to the problem of differential equation. Two models were considered. The differential equation and the state variable model were found to be more acceptable. An application of the model is also given.
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Maximization of Communication Facilities on Network of Personal Computers

Author(s): ODABI, I. ODABI AND OLAYINKA, A. SAMSON (2012)
Published at :Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 1 (2): 122-126
Communication is an integral part of man without which it will be practically impossible for man to achieve anything meaningful in life. It is a fact that most 21st century organizations have a network of computers in place, however majority of these organizations have not fully utilize the facilities available to them on their network. In this paper, we present the implementation of VoIP, desktop sharing, virtual team, file sharing, life chat and internal memo transmission on a network of personal computers using Microsoft NetMeeting to reduce the cost associated with internal communication within an organization.
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Media Coverage of Elections in Nigerian Democracy

Author(s): OBOH, G.E (2011)
Published at :University of Derby’s Online Journal,
This paper analyses the relationship between the mass media and society with an emphasis on the role of the media in the conduct of elections in Nigerian democracy. The various processes involved in the conduct of elections were examined as the study analyses some of the techniques the media employ in their attempts to influence voters’ attitudes toward a particular party or candidates in the elections. The practice of advocacy journalism, where media houses become the megaphones of political parties is unethical as it could create a misleading influence on the voters’ choice of party and candidates. The role of Agenda-Setting theory regarding the responsibility of journalists in the conduct of the elections is for the media to give equal attention in their coverage to the activities of all the registered political parties in the elections, and also serve to educate the public about the character and competence of the candidates wanting to be elected, and thereby allowing the electorate to intelligently decide on which party and candidates to vote for during the elections. This practice would enhance the quality of public participation in the formation of government and reflect on the calibre of the individuals that would be elected into various strata of government and parliaments in the country.
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Media, Ethnicity and Religion As Determinants of Failed Republics in Nigeria

Author(s): OBOH, G. E. (2010)
Published at :Journal of Communication and Media Research, Department of Mass Communication, Delta State University, 2 (2) ,pp.155-165 (ISSN: 2141-5277
This paper analyses the covert influence of ethnicity and religion on the media and voting in Nigerian elections, and demonstrates how previous Nigerian Republics have been hindered because of the impact of ethnic disservice and election crises, thereby providing opportunities for the military to topple each of those failed civilian administrations. Unfortunately, the press could not play a meaningful role in the 1964/65 election crises because the leaders of the factional groups in those conflicts were equally the owners of the early newspapers. So, they simply converted their papers into channels for fighting wars of personal vendetta. In fact, ethnic rivalry and religious intolerance are today the two major sources of conflict in Nigerian politics. For these reasons, we advised the media to avoid playing the role of an advocate in the support of individuals and governmental agencies as well as ethnic nationality whose aims and objectives are inimical to the national interest and religious tolerance among the Nigerian public.
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Meursault: Le HÉros Étrange Dans L’Étranger D’albert Camus

Author(s): OGIRIKI, A. R. (2010)
Published at :IRORO: JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF ARTS
Publié en 1942, le roman L’Étranger est un reflet des événements qui évoquent la situation politique en Algérie depuis la colonisation, et une réaction contre l’injustice, l’humiliation et la misère. Camus a aussi témoigné les injustices sociales et politiques les plus écrasantes sous l’administration française. C’est à cet égard qu’il y présente un héros, Meursault, dit l’étranger qui semble trouver le non-sens, la non-signification du monde et la dictature de la société. Comme résultat, il défie tout ce que la société lui offre et reste isolé. Ce travail vise à exposer l’étrangeté dans le comportement général du héros.
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Microbial Analysis of Different Top Soil Sample.

Author(s): OGUNMWONYI IN; IGBINOSA EO; AIYEGORO OA AND ODJARDARE EE (2008)
Published at :Scientific Research and Essay Vol. 3 (3), 120-124.
Soil samples were collected from three different locations within the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Ile-Ife Campus complex and labelled according to the site of collections as PAG (park and garden), HOR (hall of residence) and BIS (biological sciences). The total bacterial and fungal counts of the soil samples were estimated using standard spread plate technique. A pH meter was used to monitor soil pH while isolates were identified by their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics using established procedures. Bacterial counts were in the order of 105-107 cfu/g of soil, while fungal counts were in the order of 103-105 cfu/g of soil. The highest bacterial count was observed in PAG, while the lowest value was seen in HOR. Fungal counts were high in PAG and low in BIS. Similar bacterial and fungal species were encountered in the different sampling locations in course of this study, but their occurrences and levels of predominance were different. Bacillus spp dominated the bacterial isolates while Aspergillus spp was the most dominant fungus across the different sampling locations. A near neutral pH was observed across the sampling sites. Bacterial and fungal abundance were typical of an environment with high species richness and functional diversity. Key words: Culturable bacterial, fungi, top soil.
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Microbial and Physicochemical Quality of an Urban Reclaimed Wastewater Used for Irrigation and Aquaculture in South Africa.

Author(s): ODJADJARE E.E.O., IGBINOSA E.O. AND OKOH A.I. (2011)
Published at :African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 5(15), pp. 2179-2186. Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr.
We evaluated the microbial (listerial) and physicochemical quality of a reclaimed municipal wastewater (RW) used for irrigation and aquaculture in South Africa between August 2007 and July 2008. Listerial density in RW ranged between 9.6 × 103 and 2.8 × 105 cfu/100 ml. pH varied from 6.7 to 7.75 while temperature ranged between 18 and 27°C. Turbidity varied between 1.6 and 19 NTU whereas chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranged from 10 to 965 mg/l. Total dissolved solids (TDS) for RW varied between 288 and 715 mg/l while dissolved oxygen (DO) ranged between 0.14 and 6.1 mg/l. Other parameters recorded the following values after wastewater reclamation: Nitrate (0.27 – 6.8 mg NO3 -N/l); Nitrite (0.12 - 6.3 mg NO2 - N/l); and Orthophosphate (PO4 3-) (0.08 – 2.17 mg PO4 3- P/l). Although the physicochemical quality of the RW was generally compliant with recommended standards, its microbial quality disqualifies it for use in agriculture and aquaculture in lieu of the public health implication for farm workers and consumers of the farm produce. Key words: Reclaimed wastewater, Listeria, physicochemical, irrigation, aquaculture, public health, environment.
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Microbial Load in Ready to Eat Rice Sold in Benin City

Author(s): WOGU, M. D., OMORUYI, M. I.*, ODEH, H. O. AND GUOBADIA, J. N. (2011)
Published at :Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials
The microbial load of ready-to-eat rice from both local fast food centers (local restaurants) and Standard fast food centers (high class restaurants) within Benin City was investigated. The total colony count ranged from 2.0 x 104 to 1.2 x 106 for bacteria and 8.0 x 104 to 2.0 x 105 for fungi. Four bacteria were isolated: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. B. cereus, which is mainly associated with food poisoning because of its ability to produce toxins, was present in 37.5% of samples alongside E. coli. Two fungi were isolated: Saccharomyces cerevisae, occurring in 50% of samples, and Aspergillus niger. Ready-to-eat rice from standard fast food centers was found to have more microbial load and more microorganisms compared to ready-to-eat rice from local fast food centers. The results of our study indicated that most of the ready-to-eat rice samples examined did not meet bacteriological quality standards. Hence, it is recommended that a more close supervision of ready-to-eat food should be carried out by relevant authorities. Keywords: Microbial load, ready-to-eat rice, standard fast food centers and local fast food centers.
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