548 Publications

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Microbial Quality of Ready-to-eat Salad Sold in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

Author(s): WOGU, M.D. AND IWEZEUA, I. (2013)
Published at :Afrrev Stech, 2(2), 26-38
This paper examines the microbial quality of ready-to-eat vegetable salads obtained from three fast food centres in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Across the counter samples of salad were collected from randomly selected locations within the city and subjected to microbial culture in Nutrient and MacConkey agar media for isolation of bacteria. Three bacteria species were isolated, namely; Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The total colony count ranged from 3.01 × 101 cfu/g to 1.5 × 103 cfu/g. the order of increasing colony count of the bacteria isolates was Salmonella > E. coli > Staphylococcus aureus. Results from the study shows that ready-to-eat-salad samples obtained fast food centres in Benin City have high microbial load and as such do not meet bacteriological quality standards. Consumption of such products may pose public health problem. It is recommended that the total hygiene and sanitary conditions under which these fast food centres operate should be monitored by the relevant government agencies and stringent supervision of processing methods are applied.
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Microbiological and Physicochemical Analyses of Top Soils Obtained from Four Municipal Waste Dumpsites in Benin City, Nigeria

Author(s): O. J. OSAZEE1, O. N. OBAYAGBONA, E. O. DANIEL (2013)
Published at :International Journal of Microbiology and Mycology
Several methodologies were utilized to evaluate the microbiological and physico chemical properties of top soil samples bored from four municipal waste dumpsites and a farmland (control sample) all located in Benin City, Edo State. The soil samples were obtained during the month of January, 2013. The mean aerobic bacterial counts for the soil samples ranged from 9.7 × 103 cfu/g for the control soil to 1.80 × 104 cfu/g for the soil sourced from the dump site at Ikheuniro. The mean heterotrophic fungal counts varied from 7.0 × 102 cfu/g for capitol dumpsite to 3.3 × 103 cfu/g for the control soil. Ten (10) microbial isolates were characterized and identified; Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Aeromonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella sp. and Staphylococcus sp., Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Saccharomyces sp. and Fusarium sp. respectively. Both Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the most dominant amongst the bacterial isolates whilst Staphylococcus sp. was the least occurring bacterial isolate. Aspergillus sp. was the highest occurring fungal isolate while the least isolated fungal culture was Saccharomyces sp. The physico chemical results showed values which ranged from 5.60 to 8.08, 164.00 ?S/cm to 540.00 ?S/cm, 2.378 mg/kg to 3.444 mg/kg, 0.009 mg/kg to 0.016 mg/kg for pH, electrical conductivity, sulphate and cadmium. Despite the positive impacts of the dumped municipal wastes on the microbial and organic properties of the analyzed soils, disposal of municipal wastes in open dump sites is an archaic and unsustainable option in the management of municipal wastes.
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Microbiological Quality and Some Heavy Metals Analysis of Smoked Fish Sold in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Author(s): E.O. DANIEL ,A.U. UGWUEZE AND H.E. IGBEGU (2013)
Published at :World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences
The microbiological qualities and heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Al and Pb) levels of five smoked fish species (Scomber scombrus, Tachurus trachurus, Pseudolithus croaker, Ethmallosa fimbriata and Clarias gariepinus) sold in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria were examined. Standard aerobic pour-plate techniques were used for microbial enumeration while heavy metal concentrations in fish were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean bacteria count of 1.24 x106 cfu/g was observed in Scomber scombrus while Ethmallosa Fimbriata had mean bacterial count of 1.85x106 cfu/g and a mean fungal count of 2.56x106 cfu/g and Clarias gariepinus had mean bacterial count of 1.24x106 cfu/g. Ethmallosa fimbriata had a lead concentration of 0.05± 0.02 mg/kg while Clarias gariepinus had a lead concentration of 0.07±0.01 mg/kg. Pseudolithus croaker and Ethmallosa fimbriata had copper concentrations of 0.68± 0.00 and 0.64±0.01 mg/kg respectively. Clarias gariepinus had iron concentration of 20.88±0.10 mg/kg while Tachurus trachurus had iron concentration of 18.16±0.14 mg/kg. In conclusion, caution should be exercised in consuming smoked-fish shaded openly in markets as they contain bacteria and fungi, reheating may be necessary to destroy microbial cells.
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Microfinance Credit and Economic Development: an Econometric Analysis

Author(s): DAVID UMORU (2013)
This study analyzed the impact of micro-finance banks' credit on macroeconomic variables in Nigeria, using a quadratic regression model. The analysis indicates that through deposit mobilization and credit delivery, micro-finance banks have significantly enhanced the development of the Nigerian economy through productivity growth, employment generation, poverty reduction and investment expansion. However, the poverty reduction effect of micro-finance is yet to be all round significant in Nigeria. To sustain the significant impact, micro-finance banks need to be strengthened in terms of a stronger capital base, enabling monetary and financial policies, operational guidelines and correspondent relationship with commercial banks.
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Microorganisms Associated with the Spoilage of Avocado Pear, Persea Americana Fruits

Author(s): WOGU, M.D. AND IGHILE, N.E. (2014)
Published at :Afrrev Stech, 3(2), 244-258
The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of Avocado pear, Persea americana fruits, purchased fresh from various markets in Benin City were investigated. The pour plate method was used for the isolation. A total of nine species of microorganisms were isolated and identified in this study. They comprise of seven bacterial and three fungal species. The seven bacterial species were: Bacillus, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Aeromonas and Micrococcus sp. occurred in samples obtained from all the markets (Uselu, New Benin, Oliha and Oba). Citrobacter sp. was isolated only from samples obtained from New Benin, Oliha and Oba Markets. Klebsiella sp. was isolated only from Uselu and Oba markets, while Acinetobacter sp. was isolated only from Oliha market. The three fungi isolates were: Mucor sp., Saccharomyces sp. and Geotrichum sp. whereas Geotrichum sp. and Saccharomyces sp. occurred in samples obtained from all four markets surveyed, Mucur sp. was present only in samples bought from New Benin and Uselu markets. The bacterial counts range was 5.2 to 6.7 × 104 cfu/g, while the fungal count range was 2.6 – 3.6 × 104 cfu/g. Proper handling methods of Avogado fruits to ensure food safety are discussed.
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Microorganisms Responsible for the Spoilage of Tomato Fruits, Lycopersicum Esculentum, Sold in Markets in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

Author(s): WOGU, M.D. AND OFUASE, O. (2014)
Published at :Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences, 2(7), 459-466
This study investigated the microorganisms associated with the spoilage of fresh fruits of tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum obtained from four markets in Benin City, southern Nigeria. A total of nine species of bacteria isolated and identified were: Bacillus subtilis, B.cereus, B.aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The most prevalent bacterial isolate was Bacillus subtilis with 49.2% and was found in all samples from Vegetable market only. The fungal isolates were Penicilium sp., Mucor sp., Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisae. Whereas Mucor sp. was the most prevalent with 57.7% and was found in fruit samples from all the markets, Saccharomyces cerevisiae had the least prevalence of 9.1% and occurred only in Vegetable and Santana markets. The mean microbial count ranges were: 2.0 × 104 - 35.0 × 104 for New Benin market; 1.0 × 104 – 25 × 104 for Vegetable market; 2.0 × 104 - 23.0 ×104 for Oba market and 1.1 × 104 – 9.3 × 104 for Santana market. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacterial isolates obtained from spoilt tomato fruit samples was determined using the disc-diffusion method. Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive to all the antibiotics used while Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Salmonella typhi showed the highest resistance. The presence of toxin producing fungi Aspergillus niger, raises concern over public health risks that may be associated with the consumption of spoilt tomato fruits.
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Mobile Marketing Communications and Consumer Privacy Issues:the Case of Cellular Phones

Author(s): ENOBAKHARE J. O. AND ADEDOYIN S. A (2012)
Published at :West African Social and Management Sciences Review
This paper is an empirical study to evaluate public perception of mobile marketing operations vis-a-vis consumer privacy issues with special focus on mobile phones as advertising medium. Survey research design was employed using a twenty item questionnaire as our research instrument. A sample size of 400 was drawn from the research population of two Nigerian universities. From the research questions, using tables and percentages, it was found that there exists a favourable disposition to the use of mobile phones as advertising medium but this does not automatically translate to using the mobile phone adverts. Two hypotheses were tested using the chi-square statistics test. Results indicate that there is a significant relationship between effectiveness of mobile phone adverts and consumer choices and purchase decision i.e. that it influences consumer preferences and choices for goods; and secondly, that mobile phone adverts are an intrusion on consumer privacy. Both hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence level. The study recommends amongst other things that advertisers should employ strategies to promote a positive public attitudinal change to enhance acceptability of mobile phone advertising andfor intensified company led researches into how new technologies can be used to block spam and reduce irritation caused by unsolicited messages to consumers on mobile phones.
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Modeling Entrepreneurship Education for Wealth Creation in Nigeria.

Author(s): ARUOREN, E. E. AND OISAMOJE, M. D. (2013)
Published at :Lagos Journal of Entrepreneurship and Technology, 2(1), 9-19
The stream of literature suggests that there is positive correlation between a properly modeled and practice-oriented entrepreneurship education curriculum and wealth creation, and by implication, on overall national development. Nations can at best operate at levels of development and technology that are appropriate to their socio-economic structure. Hence, not only should the entrepreneurship education curricula in the three tiers of education be consistent coherent and coordinated, the models should suit the nation's objective of job creation, sustainable development and overall wealth creation. This paper x-rays Nigeria's entrepreneurship education programmes, highlights the associated challenges, and emphasizes the need to mitigate these challenges, particularly in respect of adequate funding of the education sector. It recommends that models of entrepreneurship training programmes at the different educational levels should enable the students to continuously imbibe an entrepreneurial mindset that focuses on self-reliance and self-employment; two important variables for national wealth creation. Keywords: Development andtechnology, education curriculum, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial mindset, job creation, models, wealth creation.
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Modeling Grinding Processes As Micro- Micro - Machining Operation

Author(s): OLAYINKA A.S. AND IGBOANUGO A.C. (2015)
Published at :Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH)
Quest for precision components and parts in manufacturing industries has led to an increase in the need for effective and efficient finishing operations that can satisfy this increasing demand. Grinding process can meet these critical needs for accurate and economic means of finishing parts, and generate the required surface topography. Modeling of grinding is necessary to understand the effects of process conditions, grinding wheel properties and workpiece material dynamics thus allowing for process planning, optimization, and control. In spite of the enormous potentials offered by grinding, it still remains one of the most difficult and least-understood concept in manufacturing processes due to lack of adequate models to explain the phenomenon. A computational based model for surface grinding process as a micro-machined operation has been developed. In this model, grinding forces are made up of chip formation force and sliding force. Mathematical expressions for Modeling tangential grinding force and normal grinding force were obtained. The model was used to calculate the tangential and normal grinding force at different values of wheel velocity, grinding depth and workpiece feed velocity. The results obtained from the model showed that the grinding forces increased with increase in grinding depth and workpiece feed velocity but with decrease in grinding wheel velocity. The grinding wheel diameter does not have any significant effect in the Grinding forces. The results obtained with this model were validated by comparing it with available experimental results and the agreement between the model’s results and experimental results was reasonable.
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Molecular Detection and Antibiogram Characterization of Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Isolated from Urine Samples in a Tertiary Hospital Based in Benin City, Nigeria

Author(s): ODJADJARE, E.E.O. AND EKRAKENE, T. (2017)
Published at :Benson Idahhosa University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2(1): 1-12
The prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from urine samples at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Nigeria, was investigated. A total of 101 bacterial isolates from urine samples were collected from the Microbiology laboratory of UBTH and identified using standard microbiological techniques. Isolates identity were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing according to the description of Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Thirty seven of the 101 bacterial isolates (37%) were presumptively identified as Staphylococcus aureus using cultural/biochemical methods, out of which 16 (43%) were confirmed as strains of Staphylococcus aureus by PCR technique. The PCR confirmed isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin (100%), ceftazidime (81%), cefuroxime (75%), ceftriaxone (56%) and tetracycline (50%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) ranging from 4 to 11 antibiotics with MAR indices of 0.21 to 0.57 were observed among the bacterial isolates. This study demonstrated that multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus were frequently associated with urinary tract infections in Benin City, Nigeria and reaffirms the hospital setting as an important reservoir for this pathogen. It is therefore incumbent on relevant stakeholders to continually and regularly place this bacterial pathogen under close surveillance with a view to curbing its spread and preserve the public health. Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; Multidrug resistance; UTIs; Infectious disease

Moral Instruction in Primary Schools in the Nigerian Multicultural Environment: Kantian Synthesis

This paper addresses the problem of conflicting moral instructions and the attendant confusion and value-disorientation in our educational institutions, with focus on the sensitive pupils in primary schools. This study traces this problem to the multicultural nature of urban population in our country. In view of the enormity of this problem, this paper, argues that moral education in primary schools should follow country wide-regulations in order to harmonize moral instructions. To this end, this paper shows that the Kantian universal and impartial co-ordinates and law are necessary and form sufficient foundation for universal moral instruction. In conclusion, this study recommends, that the general statements on moral education in the national policy on education be replaced with Universal Morality; and that Universal Morality studies be made a unit in the curriculum for teacher education; while the Federal Ministry of Education should put in place a national council for moral education to work out the modalities for publishing novels, stories, plays and social studies in consonant with the law of Universal Morality.
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Motivating the Nigerian Public Bureaucracy to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals

Published at :Journal of International Diversity, Volume 2014 Issue 2
The main rhythm of this paper is motivating the Nigerian public bureaucracy to achieve the millennium development goals in 2005 in Nigeria. It takes a macroscopic and holistic view of motivation of employees in the Nigerian public bureaucracy as a pedestal for achieving the millennium development goals of the nation. Consequently, this paper looked at the introductory remarks, the problems, conceptual clarification of motivation, it also discussed the Nigerian public bureaucracy. It equally examines types and some theories regarding human nature and motivation, and also the millennium development goals. The paper finally epitomizes that motivation of employees in the Nigerian public bureaucracy hold the sway for achieving the millennium development goals in Nigeria and thereby eradicating poverty in the nation.
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Municipal Wastewater Effluents As a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: a Concern of Public Health Importance.

Published at :Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7:2376-2394; doi: 10.3390/ijerph7052376.
We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes. Keywords: water quality; Listeria pathogens; health/environmental impact; receiving watershed

Mycoflora of Some Smoked Fish Varieties in Benin City, Nigeria

Author(s): WOGU, M.D. AND IYAYI, A.D (2011)
Published at :Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 3(2), 29 – 33
A study of the mycoflora of six locally available and commonly consumed dried fish species namely; Ethmalosa fimbriata (bonga fish), Tilapia sp. (Banda mangala) Gadus morhua (stock fish), Pseudotolithus typhus (croaker), Arius hendeloti (cat fish) and Drepane africana (spade fish) was carried out in three sampling regimes. A total of thirty-six samples were randomly sourced from local markets in Benin City and cultured in two replicates per sample per branch in Saboraud dextrose agar (SDA). Six fungi isolates encountered in the study were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillim sp, Fusarium sp. Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma sp. in their order of decreasing frequency in all the fish samples. The highest mean mycoflora count (17.833×103 cfu) was recorded in Tilapia sp. and the lowest mean value (11.16 × 103 cfu) was recorded in Drepane africana. Aspergillus species are known to produce aflatoxins which are carcinogenic (causing heptoma – cancer of the liver), acute hepatitis, reduced red blood cell and decreased immune system in man. Fusarium sp. is reported to produce fumonisin toxin and Penicillium penicillic acid. Prolonged intake of smoked fish with these metabolites may constitute potential public health hazard. Adequate cooking could help in reducing mycoflora of smoked fish.
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N-nitrosodimethylamine (ndma), Liver Function Enzymes, Renal Function Parameters and Oxidative Stress Parameters: a Review

Published at :British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
The aim of this study is to review a procarcinogen, the N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), liver and kidney functional enzymes (in assessing action of toxicants such as NDMA) as well as oxidative stress parameters (in assessing the extent of free radical damage and scavenging). Catalase and hydro peroxidase enzymes convert hydrogen peroxide and hydro peroxides to non-radical forms and functions as natural antioxidant in human body. Enzymes like Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) and compounds such as tocopherol and ascorbic acid can protect organisms against free radical damage. Lipid peroxidation is a mechanism generally recognized as being the most important in the pathogenesis of liver injury by a number of toxic compounds including NDMA.
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New Media and the Arab Spring of 2011

This paper examines the impact and interplay of news media and social media network sites on the contemporary political revolutions and crises that have been unfolding in North Africa and the Middle East. Known as the ‘Arab Spring’, these began in Tunisia, in February 2011, and spread to Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Libya and Syria. In spite of concerns expressed by professional journalists drawn from the conventional media at the rise of citizen journalism since the 1990s, the middle-class citizens and the intellectual groups that pioneered the crusade for governmental change in the region resorted to social media networks, in collaboration with the traditional media, to ‘legitimise’ the people’s protests and civic resistance by citizens against their governments. The citizen journalists, who were part of the mass protest, used both old and new media to reveal incidences of human rights abuses and crimes against humanity committed by respective governments during the revolutions. Having reviewed the media reports on the revolutions, together with the opinions of experts on Middle East studies, it is clear that: the abuse of human rights; corruption among public officials; and, the high rate of unemployment in the region were the three main factors that ignited civil disobedience across the Arab World in 2011. Nevertheless, the citizen journalism that facilitated these revolutions remains a novelty in many developing nations, including Nigeria.
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New Media and the Arab Spring of 2011

Author(s): HUDSON, C.R. & OBOH, G.E (2012)
Published at :Journal of Communication and Media Research, Department of Mass Communication, Delta State University, 4 (2) pp. 101-117 (ISSN: 2141-5277)
This paper examines the impact and interplay of news media and social media network sites on the contemporary political revolutions and crises that have been unfolding in North Africa and the Middle East. Known as the ‘Arab Spring’, these began in Tunisia, in February 2011, and spread to Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Libya and Syria. In spite of concerns expressed by professional journalists drawn from the conventional media at the rise of citizen journalism since the 1990s, the middle-class citizens and the intellectual groups that pioneered the crusade for governmental change in the region resorted to social media networks, in collaboration with the traditional media, to ‘legitimise’ the people’s protests and civic resistance by citizens against their governments. The citizen journalists, who were part of the mass protest, used both old and new media to reveal incidences of human rights abuses and crimes against humanity committed by respective governments during the revolutions. Having reviewed the media reports on the revolutions, together with the opinions of experts on Middle East studies, it is clear that: the abuse of human rights; corruption among public officials; and, the high rate of unemployment in the region were the three main factors that ignited civil disobedience across the Arab World in 2011. Nevertheless, the citizen journalism that facilitated these revolutions remains a novelty in many developing nations, including Nigeria.
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Nigeria Personal I Ncome Tax (amendment) Act 2011: Implications for Tax Administration and Enforcement

This paper critically reviews the implications of Nigeria Personal Income Tax (Amendment) Act 2011 as they affect personal income tax administration in the hands of tax authorities as well as employers, employees and individuals as it relates to compliance issues of payment, collection, and remittance of personal income tax.
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Nigerian Entrepreneurship: Theory and Research

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. (1990)
Published at :Nigerian Management Review, 5(3&4), 309-319
This study is a review of the development of research on Nigerian entrepreneurship. Comparative literature on other countries was also reviewed. Macro issues such as shortage of capital, availability of real business opportunities to Nigerians, inclement economic environment and entrepreneurial deficiency were analysed. Also analysed were micro issues relating to the organizational practices of entrepreneurs and factors associated with their performance. The study identified areas that require further research and suggested that such studies should shift emphasis from the characteristics and traits of entrepreneurs to the behaviours of entrepreneurs.
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Nigerian Indigenous Games As Instrument of Child Education and Cultural Development

Author(s): OMOREGIE, N.O. (2008)
The paper examines Nigerian indigenous games and educational benefits to the child, including understanding of cultural ties. A number of indigenous games were analyzed, ranging from individual to team games. Their areas of origin were included and also the rules that guided them. A number of these indigenous games that are presently neglected in the school curriculum because they are seen as the games of the unlearned, posses physical, mental, moral, emotional and social benefits. This paper contends that these games are strong and reliable instruments for cultural development. It was therefore recommended that teaching of physical education in schools should include variety of indigenous games. In collaboration with the ministry of health, the ministry of education should work with the traditional rulers to ensure that these games are encouraged and preserved.
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Nigerian Land Use Act of 1978: Reflecting on Its Failed Objectives and Imperatives for Repeal

Author(s): BELLO JOSEPH (2013)
We have watched over the decades the problems encountered in acquisition of land and subsequently in obtaining the approval of certificate of occupancy and land delivery in Nigeria. At the commencement of the Land Use Act 1978, it was stated that it is in the public interest that the rights of all Nigerians to the land of Nigeria be asserted and preserved by law”. Our concern is not really another criticism against the Act but an in- depth evaluation of how it has achieved its aim if any in the mass provision of land to the citizens of Nigeria. That is, where lays the hope of the masses in the current wave of high cost of acquisition of land? It should be noted that one of the cogent reasons why the Act came into existence was because of the nature of trusteeship of land in the past; it was difficult for just anyone to get access to land. Could we now say it is very easy for just anyone to get access to land today? Therefore, this paper critically re-examined in-depth the motives behind the act vis-a-vis the present realities and evaluate some of the headings of the Act and further suggest and strike a balance between persons calling for absolute and radical reform and those calling for partial reform of the Act.
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Nomadic Education: a Gateway to Education for All in Nigeria

Nigeria’s nomadic people are typically described in terms of what they do not have. They do not have access to adequate food, clean water, health care, clothes or shelter. They do not possess literacy skills. Their children do not have access to basic education. Young female nomads do not have the cultural freedom to marry who they want marry. Nigerian’s nomads, therefore, arguably needs a better understanding of their socio-cultural predicament, which many consider as less developed. Educating Nigeria’s nomadic populations via distance education (and using mobile radio, mobile phones and television education) can be viewed as a positive step towards effective implementation of the provision of Nigeria’s National Policy on Education (NPE) on equal access and brighter opportunities for all its citizens regardless of where they live. This paper focuses on nomadic education, as a gateway to the realization of education for all nomads by 2015. Recommendations were made to enhance nomadic education in Nigeria.
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Noun Class and Concord in Ivie

Author(s): RICHARD A. MASAGBOR (1989)
Ivie (North Ibie), a dialect cluster of Northern Edoid, is a Kwa language displaying characteristics of a bomial class system. The language does not, however, fall within the main stream bantu nomial class system of Guthries type of analysis. in Ivie, the noun structurally comprises a class prefix and the base lexem. Inthe complex noun phrase it displays a system of syntactic concordd and pronomial refernces tha go with the noun such as demonstrative, anaphoricc and others. In this way such marking for number, animacy/inanimacy and even augmentativeness/ dimiuntiveness is ensured
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Old Testament Prophetic Themes and Uniqueness of Prophets Hosea on Love.

Author(s): AMBROSE OYEDOLA (2016)
This paper examines the societal impact of the Old Testament Prophets as evident in the thematic contents of their messages. Using Hosea as a case study, this work observes that among all these prophets, Hosea's message, thematic content and family life, replicated the God-kind of Love. The findings are that as a result of Hosea's love. for Gomer his wayward, untrue and unfaithful wife, who had left him for other men severally, he was able to forgive her and restore their marriage. This paper concludes that Hosea's family life was a replica of God's relationship with Israel. Hosea was in the centre of a Divine drama in which he was chosen as the actor, His very life was meant to be a symbol or representation of God's unflagging love for Israel in their backslidden state.

On Linearised Semi-implicit Runge-kutta Method,

Author(s): BAZUAYE, F.E.; AND ATAHA, J. (2005)
Published at :BIU Journal of Social and Management Science, 3(1), 15-30. Nigeria.
We present a framework for the stability analysis of a linearized semi-implicit Runge-Kutta Method. To determine an A or L stable LSIRM. the conventional procedure has been to estimate the parameters from the construction and then test for a- or l- stability. It is now questioned whether conditions cannot be imposed on the parameters a priori to achieve the required stability. The general LSIRM of orders one, two and three respectively were, therefore constructed using Taylor’s expansion. The stability function for each method was derived from the stability analysis; criteria were set for A- or L- stability.
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