547 Publications

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Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Composition of Annona Muricata Leaves

Author(s): USUNOBUN U., OKOLIE N. P., ANYANWU O. G., ADEGBEGI A.J. AND EGHAREVBA M. E. (2015)
Published at :European Journal of Botany Plaint Science and Phytology
Proximate composition and phytochemical analyses were carried out on the leaves of Annona muricata using standard methods. The result of the proximate composition showed that the leaves contained 88.99% dry matter, 11.01% moisture, 25% crude protein, 14.96% ash, 22.20% crude fiber, 21.22 % fat and 16.62% carbohydrate contents. The phytochemicals detected in the ethanolic leaf extracts were flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside, tannins, triterpenoid, saponin and reducing sugar. The findings indicate that Annona muricata leaves is a potential source of highly nutritious feed stuff and phytomedicine. They are of nutritional, clinical and veterinary relevance considering the diverse ethnopharmacological uses of the plant in different parts of the world.
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Phytochemical, Trace and Mineral Composition of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaves

Author(s): USUNOBUN U AND OKOLIE NP (2015)
Published at :International journal of biological and pharmaceutical research
This study investigated the phytochemicals, trace and mineral contents of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina obtained from Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. The mineral analysis was done using Atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis method while phytochemical composition was determined using standard methods. The results of the phytochemicals analyses are as follows: saponins (2.50%), alkaloids (1.03%), flavonoids (11.50%), tannins (0.17%), ascorbic acids (46.64mg/100g), beta-carotene (9.05mg/100g), and reducing sugars (45.60%) while the mineral analysis reveals the following: sodium (483.06mg/kg), potassium (627.98mg/kg), magnesium (6,813mg/kg), calcium (12641.76mg/kg), zinc (14.23mg/kg), iron (322mg/kg), phosphate (33.25mg/kg), copper (19.50mg/kg), chromium (3.75mg/kg), and cadmium (4.99mg/kg). Our findings provides evidence that leaves of Vernonia amygdalina contain medicinally important bioactive compounds, shows its inert potentials for use as possible supplement in animal nutrition and it justifies their use in traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.
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Pollution in Aquaculture: Chemical Health Concerns of Aquaculture Systems in Nigeria. African Scientist (afs) Vol. 10: 117-122

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. (2009)
This paper reviews the chemical health concerns associated with products from aquaculture and the possible risks to consumers. Various chemicals used in aquaculture that are of public health concerns such as chemical fertilizers, chemicals in feed, antibiotics, anti-fungal agents, agrochemicals and industrial pollutants were highlighted. Health concerns of some pathogenic bacteria and fish-borne helminthes species associated with some specific aquaculture systems such as integrated fish/poultry and fish/livestock farming were also highlighted. The need for rational use of chemicals in aquaculture was stressed. The paucity of information regarding the health hazards and risks associated with the use of hormones, feed additives, anaesthetics, veterinary drugs and vaccines I Nigeria and most African countries and the need to intensify investigations to generate data for the development of quality criteria and legislative frame work for adequate use of chemicals in aquaculture were stressed.
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Pollution Studies on Nigerian Rivers: Heavy Metals in Surface Water of Warri River, Delta State

Author(s): WOGU, M.D. AND OKAKA, C.E. (2011)
Published at :Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 1(3), 7-12
Surface water samples from Warri river in Delta State of Nigeria were analyzed quantitatively for the concentration of nine heavy metals, namely: Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Nickel, Vanadium and Zinc, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Iron (Fe) recorded the highest mean value of 1.9304mgl-1 while Lead (Pb), had the least mean concentration of 0.000mgl-1. Warri river receives effluents from industrial, agricultural and domestic sources. Cadmium, Chromium, Manganese and Nickel had higher concentrations than values in standard guidelines for potable water, pointing the existence of risks to public health. There is need, therefore for a constant monitoring of the heavy metals concentrations in the surface water as well as a comprehensive conservation efforts by relevant organizations.
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Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Stem Bark Extracts from Jatropha Curcas (linn).

Author(s): OSAMUYIMEN O. IGBINOSA, ISOKEN H. IGBINOSA, VINCENT N. CHIGOR, OLOHIRERE E. UZUNUIGBE, SUNDAY O. OYEDEMI, EMMANUEL E. ODJADJARE, ANTHONY I. OKOH AND ETINOSA O. IGBINOSA (2011)
Published at :International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12, 2958-2971; doi:10.3390/ijms12052958. www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms.
We assessed the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol stem bark extracts of Jatropha curcas. The total phenol, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were evaluated to determine their effect on the antioxidant property of this plant, using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant were also assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, (O2?) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using spectroscopic methods and results were compared with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid as standards. The concentrations of different classes of phenolic compounds were higher in methanol and ethanol extracts compared to aqueous extracts. There was correlation between total phenol, total flavonoids, total flavonol and total proanthocyanidins (r = 0.996, 0.978, 0.908, and 0.985) respectively. There was correlations between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract (r = 0.98). Findings from the present study indicated that J. curcas is a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant based products. Keywords: Jatropha curcas; antioxidant activity; polyphenolics; free radicals; scavenging capacity
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Preliminary Investigation on the Phytochemistry and Antimicrobial Activity of Senna Alata L. Flower.

Author(s): IDU, M.; OMONIGHO, S. E. AND IGELEKE, C. L. (2007)
Published at :Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10 (5): 806 - 809.
Preliminary studies on the Phytochemistry and extracts of water, methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether of Senna alata flowers were examined for antimicrobial properties. Extracts tested at a final concentration of 500ug/mL produced in-vitro antimicrobial activities in assays against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeureginosa and Bacillus subtilis. The zones of inhibitions produced by the extracts in agar diffusion assay against the test microorganisms ranged from 4 to 10 mm, while the gentamicin antibiotic control produced zones that measured 5 mm. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts showed the presence of phenols, tannins, anthraquinoes, saponins and flavonoids. Keywords: Phytochemistry, antimicrobial activity, Senna alata L. flowers.
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Prelimnary Studies of the Length – Weight Relationships and Condition Factor of Five Fish Species from Ibiekuma Stream, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. E3journal of Agricultural Research and Development, Vol. 2(3): 061 – 069

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E., OBASOHAN, E. E., IMASUEN, J. A. AND ISIDAHOME, C. E. (2012)
This study examined the length - weight relationships and condition factor of five freshwater fishes: Papyrocranus afer, Parachanna obscura, Malapterurus electricus, Tilapia mariae and Oreochromis niloticus from Ibiekuma Stream, Ekpoma, Nigeria. The results of the length - weight analyses showed that all the fishes exhibited negative allometric growth pattern with regression exponent b values less than 3, while the correlation coefficients (r) obtained which ranged from 0.850 to 0.963 revealed a high degree of positive correlation. The analyses also showed that the condition factor of P. afer and P. obscura were less than 1, and implied that these fishes were not in good physiological state of well-being in the stream, but the values for M. electricus, T. mariae and O. niloticus were greater than 1 and implied that they were in good physiological condition. Other complementary investigations of the length-weight relationships and condition factor of these fishes and indeed of the morphometrics and general biology of the fishes of this stream are advocated.
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Press Reports on the Activities of the Pentecostal Churches in Nigeria: May 1999 – May 2002

Author(s): OBOH, G.E. (2004)
Published at :Journal of Society, Development and Public Health, Department of Sociology, University of Lagos, pp. 99-118 (ISSN: 1597-4817
The church as a social institution is supposed to continually promote civilized norms and values in every society. But recent studies reveal that most teachings and sermons in Nigerian churches no longer have positive influence on the lives of many Christians. These occurrences tend to make the public doubt the moral integrity of the Nigerian churches, especially the Pentecostal churches. This paper, therefore, examines the effort the Nigerian press, the Watch-dog of the society, has made so far in providing direction to the Pentecostal churches. To this end, The Guardian, Vanguard, Punch and The Nigerian Tribune issues published between May, 1999 and May, 2002, were content analyzed with a view to determining the volume of coverage they gave to Pentecostal activities, as well as the issues that were actually reported. A total of 256 news items were reported by the four dailies: The Guardian, Vanguard, Punch and The Nigerian Tribune on Pentecostal activities. It was based on these data that the various research questions were answered. Findings from the 3 Tables show that the Nigerian newspapers did not give sufficient coverage to the Pentecostals, similar to the attention it gave to other socio-economic and political issues. On the second research question on the degree of prominence, it was also discovered from the data in Tables IV, V and VI that the prominence the press gave to the Pentecostals was low in terms of the prominence it gave to other issues reported. Table VII however, indicates that the Pentecostals were favourably reported. However, Table VIII disclosed that the press reported mainly on the activities of some of the Pentecostal pastors, including the major crises within and among Pentecostal churches without necessarily suggesting ways of resolving such conflicts.
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Prevalence and Socio-economic Effects of Onchocerciasis in Okpuje, Owan West Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria

Author(s): WOGU, M.D. AND C.E. OKAKA (2008)
Published at :International Journal of Biomedical and Health Sciences, 4(3), 112–119.
A survey of the prevalence and socio-economic effects of onchocerciasis in Okpuje, Owan West L.G.A. of Edo State, Nigeria, was undertaken. Of the 655 persons enumerated in the community, a total of 200 subjects (102 males and 98 females) were randomly chosen for the study. The people were skin- snipped after undergoing a physical examination by a physician. The overall prevalence of infection was 47.5%. The symptomatic manifestations of the disease were: Leopard skin recorded the highest prevalence of 40.5%, ocular lesion, 14%, nodules, 10.5% and lizard skin, 7.5%. More males (27.5%) than females (20%) had onchocerciasis but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, age had a significant effect on the prevalence of onchocerciasis (P < 0.001). Socio – economic studies using structured questionnaires and interviews were carried out. The results indicated that onchocerciasis was associated with a variety of adverse social and economic effects on the people. 40.5% of subjects mainly farmers and artisans, that presented with pruritus or itching complained of insomnia, general fatigue and lack of concentration at work, with a net effect of low productivity. Some children of infected parents reportedly dropped out of school. 14% of females with ocular lesions had given up jobs such as sewing, weaving and hair plaiting because of visual impairment thus leading to loss of personal and household economic productivity. 93.3% of subjects with lizard skin and 50.5% of those with leopard skin presented with varying levels of body disfigurement, had high level of low self-esteem, marital problems and social stigma.
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Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Secondary School Students in Benin City

Author(s): WOGU, M.D. AND OGBEBOR, N.E. (2011)
Published at :African Research Review, 5(4), 145-151
A total of 180 secondary school students (62 males and 118 females) selected randomly from the three local government areas in Benin City were screened from March to May 2007 for the presence of bacteria in their urine. Standard bacteriological methods were used in the screening of mid-stream urine samples collected to determine significant asymptomatic bacteriuria. Results obtained from the study showed that the prevalence rate was 15% distributed into 12.78% females and 2.22% males and urine culture yielded 27 samples with isolates. The isolates were Candida sp. (48.28%), Escherichia coli (17.24%), Streptococcus faecalis (13.79%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.34%) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (10.34%). High occurrence of Candida sp. in the females could be as a result of intake of broad spectrum antibiotics which reduces competition in the normal flora in the female genitourinary tract thereby favoring its proliferation part of which may ascend the urethra. Good personal hygiene and de-emphasizing self prescription drugs which could lead to antibiotics resistance are recommended measures to curtail the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in secondary school students.
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Prevalence of E. Coli 0157:h7 in Fresh and Roasted Beef in Kano City, Nigeria.

Author(s): DAHIRU, M., URAIH, N., ENABULELE, S. A. AND SHAMSUDDEEN, U. (2008)
Published at :Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 1 (1): 39 – 42.
ABSTRACT The prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in 300 fresh beef and 150 roasted beef samples from Kano city Nigeria was determined, by direct plating on Sorbitol MacConkey agar (CT-SMAC) supplemented with Cefexime 50µg/L and Potassium tellurite 25mg/L and resuscitation on Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB) at 250C for two hours for roasted beef samples. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by using E. coli 0157:H7 latex agglutination test kit. Prevalence rate of 53% was obtained in fresh beef and 25.3% in roasted beef. Consumption of inadequately cooked beef poses a serious risk of infection. The study therefore stressed the need for health authorities to educate and put in place efficient surveillance strategies for detection and control of possible outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 in the society
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Prevalence of Malaria Parasite Infection Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Author(s): WOGU, M.N., NDUKA, F.O. AND WOGU M.D. (2013)
Published at :International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health, 3(2), 126-132
Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of malaria parasites among some pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Rivers State, Nigeria. Study Design: Cross:-sectional study Place and Duration of Study: Five healthcare centres in Rivers State, Nigeria, between April and September 2011. Methodology: Peripheral blood samples were collected using venous procedure and the presence of malaria parasites was observed microscopically on thick and thin blood smears prepared from each sample. Personal data were collected through questionnaires and the general results gotten during this study were analyzed statistically using two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results: The only species of malaria parasite identified in this study was Plasmodium falciparum. A total of 104 (26%) pregnant women were infected with P. falciparum in this study. Pregnant women in their first, second and third trimesters had prevalence rates of 27%, 27.3% and 21.8% respectively (P<0.05). Prevalence rates for primigraviidae, secundigraviidae and multiparous women were 26.1%, 31.5% and 20% respectively (P<0.05). prevalence rates of 26.9%, 27.8% and 21.5% were observed in pregnant women between the ages of 11-20, 21-30 and 31-40 respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Malaria still needs to be given more attention due to its negative impact on pregnant women and their unborn children.
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Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (mar) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa.

Author(s): EMMANUEL E. ODJADJARE; ETINOSA O. IGBINOSA, RAPHAEL MORDI, BRIGHT IGERE, CLARA L. IGELEKE, AND ANTHONY I. OKOH (2012)
Published at :International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 9: 2092 - 2107.
The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physiochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 x 104 (cfu/100mL), and 2.66 x 104 (cfu/10mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (10%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%), whereas high resistance were observed against the penicillins (90 - 100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamenthoxazone (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent int he final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa, and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes. Keywords: Pseudomonas, antibiogram, multiple-antibiotic resistance, wastewater effluent.
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Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (mar) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa.

Author(s): ODJADJARE E.E., IGBINOSA E.O., MORDI R., IGERE B., IGELEKE C.L., OKOH A.I. (2012)
The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), 1.08 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), and 2.66 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%); whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90–100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamethoxazole (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes. Keywords: Pseudomonas; antibiogram; multiple-antibiotic-resistance; wastewater effluent
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Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Among Active and Passive Smokers of Cigarette in Benin City, Nigeria.

Author(s): EKRAKENE, T. AND IGELEKE, C.L. (2010)
Published at :International Journal of Biomedical and Health Sciences 6 (1): 91 - 96
A survey aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among 100 men (involving active and passive smokers) was carried out at the Central Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Sputum samples from incoming patients of the Hospital were screened and diagnosed in the Chest Ward Laboratory of the Hospital and Zichl-Neelsen's staining technique was used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The obtained results showed that there was a prevalence of 48% pulmonary tuberculosis is active smokers and 16% in passive smokers. A high prevalence of 43% was obtained for 36 - 40 years age group. 33% for 31 - 35 years age group, while 25 - 30years of age recorded 20%. The result of this survey has serious health implication as passive smokers who may not be aware of this, are mostly exposed to these dangerous smokes innocently and ignorantly. It therefore behooves on the authorities of nations to enforce all relevant laws on prohibition of smoking in public places and where such enabling laws are absent, they should be enacted it in order that the health of the general public is protected from the health hazard emanating from cigarette smoking and cigarette smoke. Key words: Active smokers; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Passive smokers; Pulmonary tuberculosis; Cigarette.
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Probabilistic Fixed Lifetime Inventory Model for Continuous Demand Rate.

Author(s): ENAGBONMA. O AND OBAHIAGBON K.O. (2014)
This paper deals with the development of expected cost model in a fixed lifetime inventory system. In this type of inventory, items in stock are expected to be used before the expiring date. The system consists of an age-wise profile of items (state space). The size of the space is directly proportional to the life of the items. Consequently, the inventory management is faced with lots of challenges otherwise item will be outdated, additional cost such as holding cost, shortage cost and ordering cost will be incurred. Optimal solutions to the fixed lifetime of perishable inventory problem cannot be realized in practice due to their computational complexity arising from the fact that exact formulation of the problem requires information on the age distribution of the items in inventory and the corresponding quantity of items of each age. Hence there is a gap between theoretical results and practical requirements for computational results. The purpose of this study is to minimize the proposed expected cost model, an interval of the optimal value of inventory level (s) was derived Hence we bridge the gap between theoretical results and practical requirements for computational results. The expected holding cost, expected shortage cost, expected outdates cost, ordering cost were computed and were applied to determine the expected cost for the fixed lifetime inventory system.
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Profitability and Constraints in Cocoyam Production in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria

Author(s): EKUNWE, P. A., EGWARE, R. A. AND AKAHOMEN, A (2015)
Published at :Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo, Nigeria
This study examined the profitability and constraints of cocoyam production in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State. Primary data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to 60 cocoyam farmers. Both purposive and simple random sampling methods were employed in the selection of the 60 cocoyam farmers for the study. Farm budgetary analysis was used to estimate the profitability of cococyam production while the likert scale was used to identified and analysed the production constraints. The results showed that male respondents were 37(53.3%) while female were 28(46.7%). The average household size was 9 persons. Majority (48.3 %) of the farmers were within the age bracket of 31- 40 years, while 63 % of the respondents had faming experience of less than or equal to five years. The average farm size for the respondents was 1.45 hectare. The result also revealed that the cocoyam production was profitable with a gross farm income of N 283,680.46 per annum and a net farm income of N253, 984.32 per annum. The return per naira invested was 1.67 indicating that the farm business realized a return of N 1.67 for every naira invested in cocoyam production. Finally, the major constraints faced by the cocoyam farmers were unavailability of land, inadequate finance, high cost of labour, incidence of pest and diseases, inadequate storage and inadequate processing. It was therefore recommended that the National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike should assist in and tackled the incidence of diseases and pest.
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Proliferation of University Education in Nigeria: Implications for Human Resource Development

Author(s): JOHNSON AGBONAVBARE OSAIGBOVO, (PH. D) (2013)
The proliferation of universities both public and private in Nigeria, despite the economic recession in the country since the 1980s, has increased the problems of the universities and their products so much that now their future seems uncertain (Ogunsola, 2004). In spite of the poor funding and it negative consequences, university population grew exponentially, leading to further strain on dilapidated structures. As student populations outstripped available lecture spaces and teaching resources, lecturers became overburdened with crowded classrooms and excessive grading responsibilities. Rather than respond to the quality issues resulting from over population, federal and state governments resorted to the proliferation of universities. The federal government over curiously announced the establishment of nine new universities recently at a time existing ones are on crutches. Yet, no provisions were made for capacity building opportunities for existing lecturers and the training of new ones. These developments have resulted in poor teaching and learning outcome in Nigerian Universities. Hence, this paper examined the implications of proliferation of universities education on human resources development in Nigeria. It was concluded that Nigeria universities should be equipped and modernized to be able to compete with other universities in the world. The paper recommended that federal government should grant full autonomy to all nations’ university systems.
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Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry.

Author(s): AIGBODUWA, J. E. AND OISAMOJE, M. D. (1950)
Published at :European Scientific Journal (January 2013), 9(1), 244-261.
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are generally acknowledged as having huge potentials for employment generation and wealth creation in any economy. Hence, interest in their development continues to be in the forefront of policy debates. In Nigeria however, the sector remains relatively small in terms of its contribution to GDP or to gainful employment. Though the Nigerian Oil and Gas industry has played pivotal role in the economic development of the country since independence, with over 95% of the total export revenue currently accruing from this sector, the participation of SMEs in the sector has been largely insignificant. However, the enactment of the Nigerian Content Development Act 2010 provides a number of opportunities for Nigerians to participate in the oil and gas sector. This paper examines the historical trend in the development of SMEs in Nigeria and identifies the several opportunities and competitive advantages now exclusively reserved for Nigerian companies under the Nigerian Content Act. The access to funding for the development of the capital base of SMEs is emphasised, and it is suggested that the Act would offer a turning point in the realisation of all the policy thrusts formulated for growing SMEs in Nigeria in future. Keywords: SMEs, Oil and Gas, NOGIC Act, Nigerian content
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Protective Effects of Annona Muricata Ethanolic Leaf Extract Against Dimethylnitrosamine (dmn)-induced Hepatotoxicity.

Author(s): USUNOBUN USUNOMENA (2014)
Published at :IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences
The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective role of ethanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced hepatotoxicity in rat model. DMN administered rats (single dose orally, 12 mg/kg; on day 8) were pretreated with ethanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata (400 mg / kg body weight) for 7 days and sacrificed 48hrs after DMN intoxication. Results showed that DMN caused a marked rise in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), as well as marked decrease in serum total protein (TP), globulin, albumin (ALB), PCV, WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin and platelet compared to controls. However pretreatment with Annona muricata ethanolic leaf extract produced a significant decrease in the ALT and total cholesterol level and an increase in total protein, globulin, albumin and hematological parameters compared to DMN alone group. Taken these data together, it can be concluded that natural plant components such as Annona muricata leaves could protect the liver against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver toxicity.
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Protective Role of Ethanolic Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina Against Potassium Bromate Induced Tissue Damage in Wistar Rats

Author(s): S.J. JOSIAH, S.C.O. NWANGWU, A.A. AKINTOLA, U. USUNOBUN, F.S. OYEFULE, O.K. AJEIGBE AND A. AKINOLA (2011)
Published at :Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
The protective role of ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygadalina against potassium bromate induced tissue damage in Wistar rats was investigated. Twenty rats were divided into four groups of five rats each (A, B, C and D). Group A was administered 1 ml of 0.25 M sucrose solution. Group C and D were pretreated with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of V. amygdalina respectively. The oral induction of 60 mg/kg potassium bromate to groups B, C and D were done eight hours before sacrifice. The liver, spleen, brain, kidney, heart and stomach were collected. Organ-body weight ratio, total tissue protein, amino acid level and malondialdehyde level in the tissues were estimated. The result showed a significant increase in all the parameters studied in group B. The organ to body weight ratio, total protein level, MDA concentration significantly lowered at both doses and amino acid level reduction is significant (p<0.05) in Group C when compared with Group B. This suggested that ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina has a protective potential against tissue damage induced by potassium bromate.
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Public Perception of Public Relations Practice in Nigerian Universities

Author(s): OBOH, G.E & ENOBAKHARE, J.O (2010)
Published at :International Journal of Communication: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Communication Studies, location: Department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria, (11) pp.306-318 ( ISSN: 1597-4324)
This research examines public perception of public relations practice in Nigerian Universities. The objective was to establish public’s perception of public relations practice in academic institutions through empirical evidence. However, two universities, University of Benin and Benson Idahosa University were purposely chosen as the sample for the research. This is because both universities share similar characteristics with other Nigerian institutions. With the aim of assessing publics’ perception on PR practice, 100 copies of the questionnaire containing structured and unstructured questions were designed. The copies were distributed equally, 50 each to both universities. Our findings from the publics’ response to the three research questions that were treated in the questionnaires revealed that public relations practice in Nigerian universities is meaningful and thus provides a variety of opportunities for the universities. Most of the publics interviewed through the use of questionnaire, commended the practice of PR due to the way and manner the image of the universities is projected. We, however, recommend that public relations department/unit in Nigerian universities should be properly equipped to enable them live up to the highest professional standards.
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Public Relations Practice in Nigeria Customs Service

Author(s): OBOH, G.E. AND KUDAISI, I.T. (2006)
Published at :BIU Journal of Social and Management Science, Faculty of Social and Management Science, Benson Idahosa University Press, 3(1), pp.121-135 (ISSN: 1115-3409)
This research work examined the public relations practice of the Nigeria Customs Service. To this end, the public relations department of the Apapa Area Command of the customs service, Idoroko Area command and the Murtala Mohammed Airport Area Command were purposively selected to form the sample for the study. Nevertheless, the same policy framework guides the public relations practice of the three area commands, reflecting what is obtainable in all the public relations departments of the Nigerian Customs nationwide. The Public Relations Officers of the three Zonal Commands were interviewed, and they explained the strategies and methods they used while relating to the public. But in order to determine the perception the public had towards the activities of the customs service, some organizations and individuals that relate to the Nigeria Customs Service on daily basis were also interviewed through questionnaire instrument. Unfortunately, the response of both the internal and the external publics of the customs service revealed that the management of the Nigeria Customs Service did not see the public relations department of the service as a significant organ for its operation and activities.
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Quality Assurance in Nigeria University Education and Credentialing” Education, Spring Hill Station, U.s.a., Vol. 129, No. 4, Pp.1-8.

Author(s): OMOREGIE, N. O. (1950)
This paper examines quality assurance in Nigeria university education and credentialing. The research contends that university education in Nigeria which hitherto enjoyed tremendous global respectability and acceptability is fast losing its high esteem in the face of labour market and members of community because the currently certified Nigerian graduates lack acceptable level of competence in their areas of specialization. If proper quality assurance mechanisms are sets in motion, then the certificates, diplomas and the degrees awarded as credentials will be worthwhile. The paper examined concern for quality in Nigerian university education, determinants of quality assurance mechanism, internal quality assurance mechanism and strategies for sustainable institutional quality. Recommendations include the repositioning and strengthening of the national universities commission to face the challenges of quality assurance in Nigerian universities, promotion of institutional culture of quality assurance and track tracing of the graduates by their universities for feed-back from employers.
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Quantum Teleportation As an Alternative Means to Transportation

Author(s): OLAYINKA T.C AND 1OLAYINKA A.S. (2014)
Published at :Journal of Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics (J of NAMP) Vol. 27, 251-256 (http://e.nampjournals.org/)
Transportation systems available at present have been discovered to have their limitations as to the time and space required to transport items from one location to another. Teleportation technology is a fast growing area of research which has the potential to influence the present means of transportation or change it. Recent research development shows the possibility of quantum teleportation, whereby an original object to be teleported disintegrates at a particular location and an exact replica is reconstructed at a remote location instantaneously. The concept Quantum Teleportation is based on Quantum Entanglement using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect has been presented as well as the importance of quantum computing to quantum teleportation. The future possibility of human teleportation was also examined based on the achievements so far in quantum teleportation.
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