547 Publications

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Radio Field Strength Propagation Data and Pathloss Calculation Methods in Umts Network

Author(s): ISABONA JOSEPH, KONYEHA. C. C, CHINULE. C. BRIGHT,ISAIAH GREGORY PETER (2013)
Published at :The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE) Journal of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications
The design of future-generation mobile communication systems depends critically on the pathloss prediction methods and their suitability to various signal propagation regions. An accurate estimation of radio pathloss is useful for predicting coverage areas of base stations, frequency assignments, determination of electric field strength, interference analysis, handover optimization, and power level adjustment. The radio path loss will also affect other elements such as the required receiver sensitivity, the form of transmission used and several other factors. As a result, it is necessary to understand the reasons for radio path loss, and to be able to determine the levels of the signal loss for a given radio path. In this paper, we investigated the radio signal path attenuation behavior, by conducting an experimental measurement survey in a UMTS network transmitting at 2100MHz band in Government Reservation Area (GRA), Benin City. The measured field strength data collected at various distances from the base stations was used to estimate the pathloss. Firstly, the effect of different parameters, such as distance from base stations was studied and it is observed that path loss increases with distance from the signal source due to a corresponding decrease in field strength. Secondly, the calculated pathloss data have been compared with data from other existing pathloss prediction methods. We find that the Okumura-Hata model pathloss values were closest of all the propagation models considered classifying the environment into consideration. Thus, the performance of Okumura-Hata model shows its suitability for path attenuation loss prediction in UMTS networks in GRA.
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Reducing Unemployment Through Effective Counselling in Schools.

Author(s): IMA- OSAGIE, P. E & ODUH, W. A. (2014)
Published at :Edo Journal of Counselling
Unemployment is a hydra-headed monster which exists among the youths in all developing nations of the world. The scourge of unemployment has been on for a very long time in Nigeria as graduates are churned out into the society every year from all the institutions. The concern of all and sundry has been how to meaningfully engage these teeming youths in order to shift their focus from the social vices of kidnapping, robbery and wanton destruction of lives and properties. An attempt has been made in this paper to look at the importance of entrepreneurship education and vocational counselling as a way of reducing if not totally eradicating youth unemployment in the country. With the promotion of entrepreneurial education through effective and continuous vocational counselling, the graduates that are turned in from institutions every year will not only be self-employed as a result of the skills they would have acquired but also become employers of labor. Some recommendation on how to realize this laudable objective has also been given.
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Registers

Author(s): CHARISA DADA (2008)
Published at :Benson Idahosa University
INTRODUCTION The notions of register can be described from two perspectives- the text based approach by Biber and Conrad (2009) and the context based approach by the Hallidayan approach. In the text based approach Biber and Conrad mainly view register as a set of texts that exhibit relatively high/low frequencies of occurrence of particular grammatical features. Their focus is therefore on the grammatical characteristics of different types of text and not on context. They distribute registers to different kinds of texts, and afterwards investigate their linguistic differences or similarities. Their stance is that registers share many linguistic features such as nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. – and they are distinguished by the relative use of these features. On the other hand the Hallidayan focus is primarily on the context of a language situation and they identify registers on the basis of this knowledge. It is from this latter perspective that our focus on register will be chiefly considered. However, if the need arises we could adopt an eclectic approach which involves a combination of the two approaches for a fuller and distinct analysis where applicable
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Related Problems with the Instruction and Learning Computer Science in Secondary Schools in Esan Central Local Government Area of Edo State, Ebonyi State University Journal of Educational Administration and Planning (ebujeap)

Author(s): AKHIDENO O. I. AND HEPHZIBAH - AWULOR, B. N. (MRS) (2011)
Over the years, the development and implementation of computer technology has had great impact on the society with the intervention of computer technology, tedious tasks undergo to achieve desired result have been drastically reduced. This study aims at finding out the problems associated with the instructing and learning of computer science in Esan Central Local Government Area of Edo State. Six research questions were formulated. A sample size of 40 secondary school teachers (including principals) and 60 students from four secondary schools were randomly selected from the population. A total of 100 questionnaires were administered to the students and teachers. All the students used are from senior secondary schools. The findings revealed that lack of man power skills and unavailability of facilities, insufficient instructional materials, irregular electricity supply, and inadequate computer accessories negatively affects computer teaching and learning in the secondary schools. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendation are postulated (i) government should create programs that will raise the standard of computer science in secondary schools, (ii) the programs should be more funded to organize seminars on teaching of computer science, (ii) organize training for science teachers, (iv) provision of constant supply of electricity and (v) orientation on the relevance of computer science to both teachers and students.
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Related Problems with the Instruction and Learning Computers Science in Secondary Schools in Esan Central Local Government Area of Edo State

Author(s): HEPHZIBAH – AWULOR, B. N. (2014)
Over the years, the development and implementation of computer technology has had great impact on the society with the intervention of computer technology, tedious tasks undergone to achieve desired result have been drastically reduced. This study aims at finding out the problems associated with the instructing and learning of computer science in Esan Central Local Government Area of Edo State. Six research questions guided the study. A sample size of 40 secondary school teachers (including principals) and 60 students from four secondary schools were randomly selected from the population. A total of 100 questionnaires were administered to the respondents. The findings revealed that lack of manpower skills, unavailability of facilities, insufficient instructional materials, irregular electricity supply, and inadequate computer accessories negatively affects computer teaching and learning in the secondary schools. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made (i) government should create programs that will raise the standard of computer science in secondary schools (ii) the programs should be more funded to organize seminars on teaching of computer science, (iii) organize training for science teachers, (iv) provision of constant supply of electricity and (v) orientation on the relevance of computer science to both teachers and students.
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Relationship Between Teachers’ Qualification and Students’ Performance in Mathematics Among Students of Private Secondary Schools in Ikpoba- Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

Author(s): ODUH, WILLIAM AKPOROBAROH, AND OKANIGBUAN, PHILOMENA NKEONYE (2014)
Published at :Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS)
The study emphasised the relationship between teachers’ qualification and students’ performance in mathematics, in Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State. The study was a Correlational survey and was conducted using twenty five private secondary schools randomly selected and a sample size of 50 mathematics teachers purposively selected from the area of study. The study was guided by four research questions and four null hypotheses. The instrument used for data collection was the Teachers’ Qualification and Students’ Mathematics Achievement Questionnaire” (TQSMAQ) which was developed by the researchers. The instrument was properly validated and had a reliability coefficient of 0.983 using the rho statistics. The findings of this study showed that: (1) the relationship between the mathematics teachers’ qualification and the overall average performance of students in mathematics had a negative partial correlation of -0205 which was less than the significance level of 0.261; (2) the relationship between the mathematics teachers’ qualification and the average performance of female students in mathematics had a negative partial correlation of -0.119 which was less than the significance level of 0.515; (3) the relationship between the mathematics teachers’ qualification and the average performance of male students in mathematics has a negative partial correlation of -0.213 which was less than the significance level 0.242; and (4) the relationship between the mathematics teachers’ qualification and percentage of passes among students in mathematics has a negative partial correlation of -0.245 which was less than the significance level 0.176. Some recommendations were made and some counselling implications outlined. The study ended with a conclusion. Mathematics is the bedrock for the study of all sciences, hence, the place of mathematics in the technological development of any nation cannot be overemphasized. The quality of mathematics teachers engaged by schools would either positively or negatively impact the performance of students in the subject.
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Relationship Between Teachers’ Qualification and Students’ Performance in Mathematics Among Students of Private Secondary Schools in Ikpoba- Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.

Author(s): ODUH, W. A. & OKANIGBUAN, P. N. (2014)
The study emphasised the relationship between teachers’ qualification and students’ performance in mathematics, in Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State. The study was a Correlational survey and was conducted using twenty five private secondary schools randomly selected and a sample size of 50 mathematics teachers purposively selected from the area of study. The study was guided by four research questions and four null hypotheses. The instrument used for data collection was the Teachers’ Qualification and Students’ Mathematics Achievement Questionnaire” (TQSMAQ) which was developed by the researchers. The instrument was properly validated and had a reliability coefficient of 0.983 using the rho statistics. The findings of this study showed that: (1) the relationship between the mathematics teachers’ qualification and the overall average performance of students in mathematics had a negative partial correlation of -0205 which was less than the significance level of 0.261; (2) the relationship between the mathematics teachers’ qualification and the average performance of female students in mathematics had a negative partial correlation of -0.119 which was less than the significance level of 0.515; (3) the relationship between the mathematics teachers’ qualification and the average performance of male students in mathematics has a negative partial correlation of -0.213 which was less than the significance level 0.242; and (4) the relationship between the mathematics teachers’ qualification and percentage of passes among students in mathematics has a negative partial correlation of -0.245 which was less than the significance level 0.176. Some recommendations were made and some counselling implications outlined. The study ended with a conclusion. Mathematics is the bedrock for the study of all sciences, hence, the place of mathematics in the technological development of any nation cannot be overemphasized. The quality of mathematics teachers engaged by schools would either positively or negatively impact the performance of students in the subject.
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Relevance of Experimental Design

Author(s): WOGU, O.E. AND WOGU, M.D. (2014)
Published at :European Journal of Business and Management, 6(6), 108-115
Research methods in the Social Sciences are vital for the sake of knowledge (adding to or improving upon knowledge). The dynamic nature of people, organizations, nations as well as our external environment brings to fore the importance a scientific approach to analysis. There exist various methods of research designs that can be employed by a researcher. For the purpose of this paper, we shall look extensively at the experimental research design, types, pros and cons of each type. Also explained are methods of its application and its uniqueness.
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Religion and Politics in Africa: the Oic Membership and Implications for Member States- Nigeria As a Case Study

Author(s): DR UMEJESI INNOCENT OGONNA (2010)
The author examine the role Religion is playing in Africa politics, with Nigeria in context, and uses the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference as a case study. He finds that the membership of this body, which is exclusively Islamic has adverse implications for non-Muslims of Member States. He suggests that Nigeria, being a secular state, should opt out of that as it is against the spirit and letter of the Nigerian constitution
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Religion and Rule of Law: Antidote to Corruption Among Public Officers in Nigeria

Author(s): DR UMEJESI INNOCENT OGONNA (2010)
Still on corruption the author proposes religion and rule of law as antidotes.
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Religion As an Antidote to Corruption Among Public Officers in Nigeria

Author(s): DR UMEJESI INNOCENT OGONNA (2008)
The Article proposes the virtues of religion as the antidote to corruption among public officers in Nigeria. The paper finds that Nigeria’s three main religions preach against Corruption and therefore suggests that the war against corruption must be fought from the spiritual and religious dimensions.
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Removal of His Excllencies from Office in Nigeria

Author(s): JESUOROBO E. IDUGBOE (2009)
Removal as used in the title to this article means dismissal from public office through the instmmentally of the National Assembly or a state house of assembly, in conformity with constitutional provisions, while His Excellencies refer to the President and Vice President of the Federation as well as the Governor and Deputy Governor of a State.Since 1999, there has been an unprecedented spate of removals and attempted removals of governors, deputy governors, and one case each of attempted removal of the president and vice president from office. The legislators in some cases displayed disregard for constitutional provisions on the matter. Hence, their attempts often ended in futility at the Supreme Court which usually ordered the reinstatement of the governors for fragrant breaches of the provisions of the constitution governing the matter. There is usually public outcry among people not learned in law when a governor who has been widely publicized to be very corrupt and whom the House of Assembly in his State has attempted to remove without following the constitutional provision for such removal, is a eventually re-instated to the state house to continue to rule (or is it misrule?) his people. This article aims at discussing the proper procedure for removing the president, vice president,? governor or deputy governor from office in pursuance of the provisions of Sections 143 and 188 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999.
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Replacement Value of Maize Offal/cashew Nut for Maize in Broiler Diet. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production (nsap), 29: 219-221

Author(s): BAMGBOSE, A. M.; OGUNGBENRO, S. D.; OBASOHAN, E. E.; ARUNA, M. B.; OTEKU, I. T.; IGENE, F. U.; OTOIKHIAN, C. S. O. AND IMASUEN, J.A. (2004)
The objective of this study (8 weeks) was to evaluate the carcass yield and nutrient digestibility of two hundred day-old broilers fed diets in which maize offal/ cashew nut offal replaced maize at 0, 10, 20 30 and 40% levels (diet 1- 5). It was evident that higher levels of maize offal and cashew nut meal inclusion resulted in significant higher (P<0.05) live weight, dressing percentage and cut-parts. This was associated with efficient nutrient digestibility, especially crude protein. It can be concluded that replacement of maize with maize offal/cashew nut led to better performance of broiler and hence increased profit margin.
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Research and Innovation for Sustainable Development: Implications for the Third World Countries

Author(s): JOHNSON AGBONAVBARE OSAIGBOVO, (PH. D) (2013)
Over the last few decades, the term “Third World” has been used interchangeably with global south and developing countries to describe poorer countries that have struggled to attain steady economic development. This term, when used today, generally denotes countries that have not developed to the same levels as Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, and which are thus in the process of developing. Education, research and innovation, professionally referred to as “Triangle of knowledge”, are integrated to build a road map leading to sustainable development for future generations. On the other hand, research and development is discovering new knowledge about products, processes and services, and then applying that knowledge to create new and improved products, processes and services that fill individual and corporate need, which will in turn elicit better conditions of living and promote sustainable development both in developed and third world countries. Hence this paper, which examine the concept of third world and sustainable development, contributions of research and foreign aid to the development of third world countries. Recommendations were made to enhance speedy and steady development in the third world countries.
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Response of Broilers to Feeding Manipulations

Author(s): OYEDEJI, J.O. AND J.O. ATTEH (2005)
Published at :International Journal of poultry science 4 (2) 96-102. www.ansinet.org
Abstract The study investigated the response of broilers to different feeding manipulations. Six groups of day old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to either one of the following feeding methods from day old to 3 weeks; Ad libitum feeding, Skip-a day feeding, 50% of ad libitum feeding, 6 hours of light and 18 hours of darkness per day, 3 % ammonium sulphate or diets containing 18% protein and 2800kcal/kg ME .Broilers were thereafter fed the same diet to market age. Results at market age showed that feed intake was significantly reduced by all but one of the feed restriction methods investigated (p<0.05, p<0.01). Weight gains were comparable among broilers regardless of the feeding method (p>0.05, p>0.01). Feed to gain ratio was significantly reduced in broilers placed on 50% of ad libitum feeding (p<0.05,p<0.01). Feeding methods did not affect broilers liveability (p>0.05,p>0.01). Cost to benefit ratio of broiler production was significantly reduced by skip- a day and 50% of ad libitum feeding methods (p<0.05,p<0.01). Also, abdominal fat pad, a factor that downgrades carcass value was significantly reduced by skip -a day and 6 hours of lighting per day feeding methods (p<0.05,p<0.01). It was concluded that for both cost and abdominal fat reduction, skip- a day feeding method for 3 weeks would offer the best alternative to the usual ad libitum feeding in broilers.
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Restructuring the Nigerian Federation for Good Governance*

Author(s): *J.E. IDUGBOE ESQ. LL.B.(HONS) O.A.U., LL.M. JOS, B.L., (2013)
This paper examines the lop-sided federalism practised in Nigeria where the central government has so much powers and the federating states have so little that the Nigerian State is run almost like a unitary state. It posits that it is essential that a balance be maintained between centralising and decentralising tendencies, in order to ensure harmony in the federation. The current Nigerian federal system is highly centralised, hence its unitary characterisation as evidenced in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999. Widespread dissatisfaction occasioned by it has led to calls for a Sovereign National Conference. Federation was a conscious decision designed to protect the diversities and identities of the federating units. The regions agreed to establish a central government that unites them, while simultaneously agreeing to retain their independence in some matters in order to safeguard their respective diversities. However, the basic tenets of federalism that defined the federal structure of Nigeria between 1954 and January 1966 have been jettisoned in favour of a unitary structure robed in federal colours. The challenge, therefore, is for Nigerians to return to the principles of federalism. The status quo, as enshrined in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999, is not sustainable.
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Review Manuscript: a Review of Some African Medicinal Plants

Author(s): USUNOBUN USUNOMENA (2012)
Published at :International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
This aim of this study is to review naturally occurring dietary chemotherapeutic bioactive agents in some african medicinal plants that can be put to therapeutic use in combating inflammation and carcinogenesis without posing any deleterious effects to normal cells, tissues, organs and systems. Flavonoids possess antioxidant activity and may play a beneficial role in cancer prevention, and offer some protection against diabetes and atherosclerosis. Polyphenol prevents oxygen free radical-induced hepatocyte lethality, prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury through inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-? expression and inhibits carcinogen or toxininduced liver oxidative DNA damage. Acetogenins have cytotoxic properties against tumor cell lines. Cardiac glycosides helps in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Tannins exert antimicrobial activities by iron deprivation, hydrogen bounding or specific interactions with vital proteins such as enzymes in microbial cells. Terpenoid have hepatoprotective effects in albino rats.
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Review of Post - Harvest Deterioration of Rubber Seeds.

Author(s): IGELEKE, C. L. AND OMORUSI, V. I. (2007)
Published at :Journal of Agriculture and Social Research, 7(2): 11-19.
Rubber seeds have potential use as a source of industrial oil as well as a protein supplement for use in livestock diets. This has necessitated large scale collection and storage of rubber seeds for uses other than propagation. Like other traditional Nigerian grains and oil seeds, rubber seeds are prone to post-harvest deterioration. The main causes of deterioration of rubber seeds are excessive moisture and pests, such as fungi, insects and rodents. To reduce losses, it is imperative that rubber seeds are dried to a moisture level of 7% or less, before storage. Only whole (unshelled) seeds should be considered for long- term bulk storage. Dried, insecticide treated rubber seeds kept in a matted polypropylene bags under strict storage hygiene can be effectively stored for one year. Key Words: Rubber seeds, Post-harvest, Deterioration, Preservation and Storage.
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Rights of Detainees Awaiting Trial

Author(s): JESUOROBO E. IDUGBOE (2009)
In every prison in Nigeria today, there are two broad categories of inmates. The first category comprise those who have been convicted by a court, sentenced to a term of imprisonment and are serving their term while the second group comprise those who committed serious offences, have been arraigned before magistrates who lack jurisdiction to try them on ‘holding charges' and have been ordered by such magistrates to be detained in prison custody pending the advice of the Director of Public Prosecutions. The country is at the moment is witnessing a tremendous increase in crime rate due mainly to unemployment caused by the closure of many industries because of epileptic power supply. There is lack of basic facilities in the rural area. This occasioned rural urban drift in which farming youths in the villages moved to the cities in search of non-available jobs. This further fueled the unemployment situation and many of them took to crime. This created a situation where the police are over stretched, the police cells are over populated the state counsels are overstretched, even the judges and magistrates are overstretched and the prisons cells are overpopulated with inmates more than 60% of whom are detainees awaiting trial. This article examines the constitutional and statutory rights as well as judicial interpretation of the rights of these detainees against the backdrop of allegations extra-judicial killings by the police and inhuman treatment in police cells.
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Role of Political Communication in the Interactive Process Between the Nigeria Politicians and Electorate in the Fourth Republic

Author(s): OBOH, G.E. (2006)
Published at :The Journal of Political Science and Public Policy (NIPP), Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Benin, 4 ( 1-6), pp.20-33 ( ISSN: 978-33411-4-6)
This study examined the two-way communication flow between the electorate in Ado-Odo/Otta local government area in Ogun State and their elected representatives in the State and National Assembly. The members of the PDP and AD’ formed the sample for the study. 320 questionnaires were distributed but 275 were returned upon which the analysis and findings of this research were based. The study revealed that most of the PDP and AD members rarely meet with their representatives for the purpose of keeping them abreast with governmental policies and programmes. The electorate indicated their interest to contribute and support government policies and programmes if the forum for participatory democracy is created by their elected representatives. The paper recommended that the rural dwellers should actively be involved in both policy formulation and implementation by state and national governments.
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Rule Based Expert System Appraoch Towards the Resolution of the Tower of Hanoi

Author(s): SAMUEL OBADAN, DR KINGSLEY OBAHIAGBON (2015)
Published at :Journal of Resourcefulness and Distinction / ASSONT /JORESDIS / vol. 10 No. 1 pg. 71-88
The tower of Hanoi has been a topic every computer scientist has had to grapple with. Its implementation cuts across a fair range of options. One of the most popular is the use of an effective but non-intuitive method: The Recursion. Although the Recursive method has gained popularity, in this paper, the authors present an intuitive approach. By keeping the towers constant and maintaining our focus on the disks, we leverage a renowned AI (Artificial Intelligence) tool: ‘A Rule Based Expert System’ towards the resolution of the tower of Hanoi.

Salvation in Hinduism As the Ultimate Goal of the Hindu: a Textual Enquiry” in Epha: Vol. 2, No. 1 (june 1998) 98 - 113

Author(s): DR UMEJESI INNOCENT OGONNA (1998)
This is a textual study of the concept of salvation in Hinduism, the oldest world Religion and the matrix of all the Indian Religions. The study shows how central salvation which is liberation from ‘Samsara’ (circle of births and rebirths) is such that each phase of Hinduism has a prescribed mode of attaining salvation which is the utmost goal of the Hindu.
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Seasonal Variations of Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in a Freshwater Fish (erpetoichthys Calabaricus) from Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria. *indian Journal of Animal Research, Vol. 42 (3): 171-179

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E.; EGUAVOEN , O. I. AND ORONSAYE, J. A. O. (2008)
This investigation assessed and monitored accumulation levels of Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd,Ni and Pb in a freshwater fish (Erpetoichthys calabaricus) from Ogba River during the dry and rainy seasons of a hydrologic year (November,2005 - October, 2006). The same metals were also examined in the water of the river over the period. The results showed that the accumulation levels in fish exceeded the levels of the metals in water and indicated bioaccumulation in fish. The dry and rainy season levels in fish as well as in water at each of the sampling stations varied, but the differences were not significant . a correlation between seasonal levels in water and fish as well as the lack of uniformity in the distribution of the metals in the river were established. The findings also revealed that both dry and rainy season mean levels of Cu, Mn, and Ni in fish exceeded WHO recommended limits in food, suggested that the fishes of the river were not suitable for human consumption. Consequently, close monitoring of metal pollution of Ogba River is strongly advocated, in view of possible risks to health of consumers of the fishes of the river.
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Sectoral Uncertainty and Nigeria's Economic Performance: a Monte Carlo Simulation Approach

Author(s): OISAMOJE, M. D. (2012)
Published at :PhD Dissertation, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
Nigeria is heavily endowed with human and material resources. The discovery of oil pre-independence in 1958 resulted in huge revenue inflows from oil export, which amounted to a total sum of about N4.57 trillion between 1970 and year 2000 (CBN, 2008). While it is posited that the ultimate goal of economic development is the welfare of the individual (Okojie, 2003), thiscolossal revenue inflow does not seem to have reflected in obvious national development or clear evidence of improved welfare for the populace, hence the situation has been described as growth without development (Yesufu, 1995). Besides, there appears to have been skewed focus on the development of the oil and gas sector to the detriment and utter neglect of the sectors of the economy, especially agriculture and manufacturing. This over-dependence on oil as the main revenue-earner for the country also exposed the economy to the slightest shocks from local and foreign sources to the extent that it has been remarked that when the oil sector sneezes, the rest of the economy catches a deep cold (Iyayi, 2003). Unfortunately, oil is a dwindling, exhaustible and non-renewable resource, and it is estimated that Nigeria's oil resources may not last mor than about four decades. Indeed, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (2005) confirms that of the sixty-five most important oil-producing countries, fifty-four of them already have declining oil production. Confronted with this dilemma, and in an effort to address the growth and development problems already highlighted, as well as examine the possibility of other sectors in the economy complementing or replacing the revenue profile of the oil sector, a number of researchers analysed the performance of the economy from the point of view of the contributions of the constituent economic sectors to national economic development. This study chose to look at the same problem differently. First we posit that every sector is confronted with varied types and amounts of uncertainty, and that these may have constrained optimum development in the sectors. We further argue that identifying these uncertainty variables and mitigating their effects would help to enhance optimum performance of the economy as a whole. To achieve this objective, we aggregated the Nigerian economy into twelve sectors, and subjected the time series data to Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) modelling in a spread sheet format, and carried out uncertainty analysis over a fifty year period (1960-2009). The complete analysis includes correlation and regression analyses, tornado chart and spider web analysis among others. Our result revealed that uncertainty in the Agricultural and Manufacturing sectors had the greatest impact on economic performance, followed by the Financial Services, Oil and Gas sector and then the Whole Sale and Retail Trade. The findings have great implications for Government, for business men and investors, as well as the academia. Ultimately, "the only certainty is uncertainty" (Galewey, 2010).
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Sharia Law and Women in Nigeria

Author(s): DR UMEJESI INNOCENT OGONNA (2006)
This article exposes the problem which women are subjected to under Sharia Law and proposes that Human rights Legislations as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Similar Legislations should be the Grundnorm.
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