547 Publications

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Sharp Practices of Some Private Universities: Implications for Human Resource Development in Nigeria

Universities are principal reservoir of skilled human resources in most countries of the world. The roles of University in research, evaluation, information transfer, human resources and technology development are therefore critical to social progress and economic growth (Echezona & Ugwuanyi, 2010). Sadly however, the nation’s education is in a parlous state is not in doubt. The mass of ill-equipped graduates yearly turned out of Nigerian universities is an unfortunate evidence of this. Universities in Nigeria, especially some private ones, have been offering programmes that they are neither equipped nor accredited to offer. They engage in all kinds of sharp practices ragging from borrowing equipment and facilities, employing unqualified lecturers, and emergency promotion of staff when they hear that panel of accreditation is coming to their schools. This is a perfect recipe for chaos towards meeting the human resources needs of the country. Hence, this paper examined the sharp practices of some private universities and its implications for human resources development in Nigeria. It was concluded that the National Universities Commission (NUC) should streamline the activities of private universities in Nigeria. The paper recommended that Education Trust Fund (ETF) should be extended to private universities to execute capital projects and human resources development.
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Sikhism: a Reform Religion of the Best Hinduism and Islam

The author discusses Sikhism, one of the four Indian religions. He avers that little is known of this religion despite its immense contribution to the religious history of mankind. The author inform us that Sikhism is the combination of he best in Hinduism and Islam as the founder, Guru Nanak, was born of Hindu parents and brought up by a Muslim master. He excluded to ugly sides of the two religions and had as his mission statement: “there is no Hindu and no Musalman. He deposed to the equality of man and elevated the dignity of women despised in both Hinduism and Islam.
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Author(s): EKEOBA S.O. (2005)
Published at :Benson Idahosa UNiversity
What really is sin? Is it just the evils people do, or is sin more than that? This work advocates that sin is a spirit being with the same characteristics as metaphysical evil. It is the agent of evil, with such heinous devastating effects on man and his environment which cause tremendous pains in life. What is lust, and what is temptation? When is it a man is said to have sinned? Read for much more
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Site Specific Assessment of Node B Using Key Service Quality Indicators over 3g/ Umts Networks from Outdoor Drive Test Measurement

Published at :The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE) Journal of Information Engineering and Applications
Periodic service quality monitoring of a deployed cellular communication network by means of an innovative expert-driven field test analysis provides an in-depth understanding of the status and performances of the network as well as of the statistical behaviour of the user population. Such knowledge allows for a better engineering and operation of the whole network, and specifically the early detection of hidden risks and emerging troubles. In this paper, an experimental performance assessment of Node B based on key quality parameters considered for design, planning and network optimization was carried out via drive test at Ugbor avenue, BIU Campus and Gapiona avenue, all located in G. R. A, Benin City. It was established that the Ec/lo range measured for BEN 035 (BIU) indicates that the BS will be able to support services demanded by more subscribers accessing the network. Proper tuning is required on this BTS to eliminate the possibility of noise interference by this BS on nearby BSs when the loading is low. It was discovered that the QoS is very poor in the environs of BEN026, with the result that UEs will not be able to access data due to rapid data rate decreases, network login difficulty, difficulty in call initiation, no network, and high call drop rate. Hence the CPICH power level should be adjusted so that base station can provide service to users; however this does not guarantee that the interference caused by other nearby base stations is within the acceptable range to establish the session. At BEN 098 (Gapiona avenue) the Ec/lo is below the standard which is -9 dB for data which low means the QoS at Gapiona avenue is very poor and can only serve for voice calls with no data capacity whatsoever. The bond between RSSI/RSCP and Ec/Io performance at the different measurement locations of Node B were also assessed. It was observed from the results that Ec/Io degrades when RSSI/RSCP decreases. Degrading Ec/Io can be an indication of increased other cell interference which will also increase the need for downlink traffic power.
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Size, Structure and Performance of Private Nigerian Manufacturing Enterprises

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. (1995)
Published at :The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 37(1), 13-26
This study examines variables of size, structure and performance of private manufacturing enterprises in Nigeria. Findings in the study indicate that structure is important to the success of an enterprise and there is a minimum degree of specialization and structuring of activities which is optimum for an enterprise depending on its size. A rapid increase in structuring of activities could also prove dysfunctional; the formal structural pattern common to large organizations could hamper small businesses. Financial institutions should therefore not require such formal structures as a qualification for finding since more informal patterns are more effective in business employing less than one hundred people.
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Social Marketing As Strategic Tool in Promoting Social Change: the Case of Sexual Harassment in Nigeria Universities

Author(s): OMAGE M. AND ADEDOYIN S. A (2014)
Published at :Journal of the Department of Communication Arts
Sexual harassment is a major social problem in universities among others like violence, examination malpractices, armed robbery and cultism. This paper studies factors in sexual harassment in connection with the plight of university students in Benin City, Nigeria. Survey results from a sample of 107 undergraduates reveal that sexual harassment consists of all forms of unsolicited advances that are sexual in nature. This is identified as a common problematic occurrence endemic in our campuses which some students face regularly but do not know how to set themselves free from its menace or/associated humiliation. Indecent and provocative dressing is identified as the major contributing factor in harassment while inferiority, frustration, emotional depression together make-up the most outstanding consequence from the survey. This paper submits that sexual harassment malady whether reported or not necessitates more dialogue between stakeholders, parents/guardians, teachers and university authorities on the management of the problem, for better enforcement of penalties, strict student dress codes compliance, etc. There is also the need for a more amicable environment enabling harassed victims to open up without fear. This paper advances the strengths of social marketing as a strategic tool in the promotion of the desired social change viz academic communities devoid of the maladies of the social problem of sexual harassment.
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Socialization and Inter-cultural Communication: a Synergistic Approach for Effective Community Relations in Nigeria

Author(s): KEGHKU, T & EGBULEFU, C.C (2009)
Published at :NIPR Journal Vol.6, Nos. 1 & 2. pp.157-165
There is no disputing of the fact that the progress, unification and peaceful coexistence of our various communities is determined by the extent to which members of both communities engage in socialization and intercultural communication processes. Socialization makes one to be acquainted with the norms, attitudes, language and moral values of his or her community while intercultural communication takes place when people of different cultures communicate to one another. In this type of communication the sender can become the receiver and vice versa. What is paramount is that each of the communicators must be free to learn each other’s signs, symbols and languages. The paper therefore highlights effective community relations. It is strongly believed that if the concept of community relations is encouraged in Nigeria, the existing hostilities among the Umuleri and Aguleri communities in Anambra State and the Jukun/Itoro communities in Benue State will be averted
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Socio-economic Determinants of Output of Groundnut Production in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.

Published at :Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania
The study examined the economics of groundnut production in Estako West Local Government Area of Edo State. The objectives of the study were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of groundnut producers, determine the costs and returns of groundnut production, identify the constraints faced by groundnut farmers and analyze the socio-economic factors determining groundnut production in the study area. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered to 60 groundnut farmers using a simple random sampling technique. The result of the data analysis showed that majority of the farmers were male (78%) with an average family size of nine persons per family. Also 50% of the respondents acquired formal education. Results obtained also showed that the gross farm income per hectare was ?(Naira)84,000 (€403.8) and the net farm income was (Naira) 41,550 (€199.8) per annum respectively. The return per naira invested was 0.98, indicating that the farm business realized a return of 98 kobo for every  (Naira)1.00) invested in groundnut production. Result obtained from the multiple regression analyses indicated that the Double log functional form provided the best fit. The coefficients of farm size, farmer’s experience, labour and ages were positive while family size was negative. The regression model is significant at 1% level as shown by F - statistic. The R2 value of 0.965 indicated that 96.5% of the variability in groundnut production was accounted for by the various independent variables used. Finally, the major constraints faced by the farmers were inadequate finance, unavailability of labour, high incidence of pests and diseases, unfavourable climatic conditions and high cost of transportation. It is therefore recommended that effort should be channelled towards ameliorating these constraints.
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Socio-economic Impacts of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research Small Scale Processing Equipment in Rural Economy of Bendel State

Published at :Nigerian Annals of Natural Sciences, 3(1), 1-9
This paper examines the intra-industry competitiveness, processing time and extraction rate impacts of the Small Scale Processing Equipment (SSPE). The SSPE was found to have drastically reduced the wastefulness of manhours associated with traditional palm oil processing technology through the elimination of labour drudgery and arduousness. The mill extraction rate was found superior to those of the traditional processing techniques. Albeit the SSPE can process fruits from both improved and wild oil palms, there was no competition for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) supply between processing using SSPE and those using traditional technology. For the SSPE payoffs to be enhanced, the paper recommends that SSPE owners be encouraged to establish their own oil palm plantation to supply FFB to their mills and that NIFOR should incorporate fibre –nut and kernel-shell separators and palm nut-cracker into the SSPE units to eliminate revenue loss due to the absence of those accessories.
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Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis Edo State, Nigeria.

Author(s): EKUNWE, P. A. AND F.O OGBEIDE (2014)
Published at :Agricultural University of Tirana. Albania.
This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets) in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin, profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93%) of the broiler marketers were female. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17) while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32). However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6). The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7%) and an F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.
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Some Aspects of Management Practices in Nigerian Private Enterprises

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. (1991)
Published at :ASCON Journal of Management, 10(1&2), 44-56
This study was designed to examine the management practices of Nigerian private entrepreneurs in order to isolate areas in which the practices may constitute a constraint on the expansion of the firms. Forty–one manufacturing enterprises were selected in the Midwestern Zone of Nigeria and the managerial practices in terms of the role of the Board of Directors, the development of information system for decision making, formalization of output standards and targets, the use of sophisticated control and reward systems analysed. Contrary to the generally held belief, substantial records were kept and used for decision making purposes. Also the enterprises engaged in substantial planning but depended mostly on personal supervision by managers to control operations. The tendency to restrict membership of the Board of Directors to the immediate family and the dependence on traditional non-innovative reward system which is incapable of attracting highly skilled manpower may limit the expansion of the firms.
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Stable Mental Health: a Pre-requisite for Performance of Guidance Counsellors in the Nigeria Secondary School.

Author(s): ODUH, W.A. (2004)
Published at :Journal of Educational Foundations
This paper attempts to look at the counsellor in the light of the goal of counselling in school as entrenched in the National Policy on Education. The basic understanding is that if counselling desires the arrest of maladjustment among school children, it becomes imperative for the counsellor to be well adjusted. This has compelled the author to examine the parameters which define a well-adjusted counsellor. In other words, the mental health of the counsellor becomes important. Thus, this paper identified some indices for well-ness which include display of professional competence, emotional stability, understanding the reality of life, ability to enter into and maintain good interpersonal relationship, maintenance of a high level of independence and aspiration to self- actualization. The paper made some suggestions towards the counsellor’s mental health, which include assertiveness training.
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Stock Prices and Exchange Rate Variability in Nigeria Econometric Analysis of the Evidence

Author(s): DAVID UMORU, PHD & MIKE O. ASEKOME (2013)
Published at :European Scientific Journal vol.9, No.25 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
This study examines the dynamic interaction between stock prices and the Naira-US$ exchange rate in Nigeria using co-integration and the Granger-Sim causality methodology. The results portray the fact that whenever there is a change in the Naira-US$ exchange rate, stock prices react in tandem. The empirical analysis thus provides evidence of a positive co-integrating relationship between the Naira-US$ exchange rate movement and the Nigerian stock market prices with bi-directional Granger causality found to exist between stock prices and exchange rate in Nigeria during the period researched. The results accordingly lend empirical support to the fact that the Naira-US$ exchange rate movement and the Nigerian stock exchange market interacted in a manner that is simultaneously consistent with the predictions of the flow and stock theories.
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Strategies for Making Competition Irrelevant in the Global Market for Developing Economies

Published at :International Journal of Emerging Trends in Management and Economics
Competition in the global market in the 21st century has now become tougher and complicated, especially with activities of the online competitors, apart from the rivalry of Multination Corporations (MNCs) with their mega-brands. The reality of the situation is that the Developing Economies are unable to cope with the competition with the MNCs locally and globally. On the other hand, the Emerging Economies of Asia, such as India and China have initially avoided competition with the Advanced Economies by massively investing and developing their domestic markets, and eventually competed favourably in the global market to the extend of now being rated among the largest economies of the world. The focus of this paper is to examine how the Developing Economies can avoid competition or make competition irrelevant and inthe long run compete favourably with other industrialized regions. The major findings of this study is that the Developing Economies can eventually cope with the global market competition if they initially create products or services for which they have no direct competitor in form of blue-ocean strategies and thereby make competition irrelevant. With this, the Developing Economies can eventually deliver unique value for their products and compete favourably in the global market, as the Emerging Economies have done. The significance of this study to managers, marketers and policy makers lies in the fact this aspect of global competition by developing economies has not been resolved. The study shows that, like Emerging Economies of Asia, Developing countries can initially avoid stiff competition by adopting “blue ocean” strategies with MNCs of Industrialized Economies such as Africa and eventually compete favourably with Industrialized Economies in the Global market.
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Strategies for Managing International Pr Practice: Lessons for Nigerian Public Relations Practitioners and Diplomats.

Author(s): KEGHKU, T. & EGBULEFU, C.C. (2012)
Published at :In Kwararafa Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol.,1, No.1, pp.1-14.
The interdependency among nations of the world that has become a globalized village has brought accelerated demand for qualitative goods .and services. It therefore behooves on organizations that want to remain in international business to encourage efficient and effective International Public Relations networking to ensure good corporate image management. International Public Relations is the practice of public relations in a foreign country where an organization has established its presence. The paper x-rays the strategies used in managing international public relations practice for organizations to achieve the set goals and objectives in the international scene. The paper reveals the synergy that exists with management, international public relations practitioners and diplomats in enhancing effective international public relations practices anchored on cordial relationship building to accomplish organizational goals and objectives. The paper recommends that management should imbibe the concept of accepting public relations practice as its philosophy and function while PR managers/diplomats should apply the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) in their operations. Also, International Public Relations Officers and Diplomats must possess technical, human, conceptual and communication skills, to have effective and efficient corporate image management. The organization concerned must work towards being a corporate citizen which is rooted in being socially responsible. Finally, the paper posits that before embarking on any international business, it is imperative that proper-research be carried out to ascertain the suitability or profitability of such a venture. Research will review the target audience, media available, culture of the foreign country and available markets for the company’s goods and services.
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Strenthening Nigerian Democracy Through Law Reforms

Author(s): *J.E. IDUGBOE ESQ. LL.B.(HONS) IFE, LL.M. JOS, B.L., (1950)
It is well established all over the world that democracy is the best form of government even though scholars and practitioners are not agreed on the definition, content and form of democracy. But there is agreement that the practice of democracy requires a legitimate constitutional framework. Unfortunately, since the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated to form the territory now known as Nigeria in 1914, there has never been an inclusive dialogue process leading to a social compact or a legitimate constitution. Meanwhile, constitution making and reform is very important in any nation because the constitution is the fundamental law of the land, which contains the rules, conventions, and other practices by which a society governs itself. The constitution of a country is perhaps the most important instrument of governance since any other law or policy that is inconsistent with the provisions of the constitution is null and void and of no effect.  This point was underscored by many Nigerians when they stated that there was need for a new social compact to be negotiated between the state, civil society and the private sector through an inclusive national dialogue. It is therefore not surprising that since the beginning of the fourth republic in May, 1999, constitutional reform has been top of the agenda of civil society organizations, intergovernmental organizations, international organizations and the Federal Government. As a result several efforts have been made to bring about constitutional reforms. Despite these attempts, a legitimate constitution has not been produced for the country.
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Structures, Institutions and Umpires for Credible Elections in Nigeria

Nigeria is today divided by mutual suspicion and distrust, a nation characterized by general depression, cynicism and frustration, a nation in which religion and ethics tensions are on the rise; a nation that has lost pride on itself, and lost faith in the political leadership. All the past elections conducted through the secret ballot were discredited because of various malpractices, demise of the first and second republics was, to a considerable degree, due to electoral malpractices and behaviour that manifested in election result lacking the credence of quite a sizeable section of the Nigeria populace. Nigeria will require non-conventional political approach to secure unity, cohesion and stability. The option A4: selection of state flag-bearers through ward, local government and state congress leading to national convention need to be revisited. In case of Nigeria, floating 60 political parties without workable structures, institutions and umpires on ground will result to mirage. The existing imperfection in the present open ballot system, that is, bribery, undue influence, unofficial announcement of results and its failure to attract international acceptability and recognition, not a adhere to the election etiquette marshaled out to guide electoral behaviours, all these, called for political restructuring. This paper therefore, discusses the structures, institutions and umpires of credible elections in Nigeria. And it was concluded that the judiciary should be seen as the last bus-stop to right every wrongs in relationships between individuals, organs and institutions of government. To avoid discredited elections in Nigeria in near future, this paper recommended that there is need to establish an electoral body that is truly independent with unbiased and neutral umpires.
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Studies on the Influence of Some Ecological Characteristics of Fish on the Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites Infection in Warri River, Southern Nigeria

Author(s): WOGU, M.D. (2013)
Published at :Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 34(2), 99-105
This study investigated the influence of three ecological characteristics of fish (food and feeding habits, preference for habitats and geographical distribution) on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites infection. 800 fishes comprising 56 species from Warri river, southern Nigeria, were examined during the study and a total of 1331 gastrointestinal helminth parasites of various taxa were recovered from fish hosts. The association of food and feeding habits on helminth parasites infection was highly significant (P<0.010) for omnivorous and predatory fishes. Omnivorous fishes recorded the highest prevalence (49.5%) of helminth infection followed by predatory fishes which had 35.6% prevalence of infection. Helminth parasites infection of herbivorous fishes and mud/silt/sand feeders had no significant association (P>0.05) and recorded the least prevalence of helminth infection of 3.2% and 1.8% respectively. On the preference for habitats, benthopelagic fishes recorded the highest prevalence of helminth parasites infection of 44% (P<0.01), followed by benthic fishes with 40.9% prevalence of infection while pelagic fishes recorded the least prevalence of helminth infection of 15.1% (P>0.05). Lastly, the relationship of euryhaline fishes, with a wider geographical distribution on helminth parasites infection was significant (P<0.01) with a 39.7% prevalence of infection. On the other hand, brackish water fishes, with a restricted geographical distribution recorded the least prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites infection of 28.8% (P>0.05). These findings showed that the ecological characteristics of fish investigated had a very significant effect on the gastrointestinal helminth parasites infection of hosts in Warri river.
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Study of the Structural Properties of Some Liquid Metals and Their Alloys

Author(s): O.M. OSIELE* AND A. S. OLAYINKA (2010)
Published at :Journal of Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics (J of NAMP) Vol. 17, 81-88 (http://e.nampjournals.org/)
In this work, the electron gas energy of some liquid metals and alloys were computed based on statistical physics approach. Also, based on the solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation for a one – component system, a model for the study of the structure factor of liquid metals and alloys were developed. The electron gas energy of some liquid metals and alloys were studied and their structure factor was computed at different momentum transfer vector. The peak heights and peak positions of the structure factor of the liquid metals and alloys were obtained from the graphical analysis of their structure factor. The results obtained revealed that the electron gas energy decreases with increase in the electron gas parameter, the structure factor of the liquid metals and alloys have peaks when the potential is a minimum. The structure factor, peak heights and peak positions obtained in this work is in good agreement with available experimental values although the level of agreement decreases as we move from the simple liquid metals to the liquid transition metals. The model can reproduce the structure factor of liquid metals within the limits of experimental errors. http://nampjournals.org/abstracts/vol17abstact.pdf
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Styles and Attitudes to the Study of Religions: and Appraisal of the Nigerian Religious Universe

The authors list and examine the various attitudes to the study of religion. These attitude are exclusivism, inclusivism, pluralism and parallelism and recommend pluralism as the best attitude as a guarantor of religious tolerance which brings religious peace for the world in a religiously plural society.
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Supervision of School: a Panacea for Standardization

The aim of supervision is to help the teachers and students to carry out more effectively the teaching - learning process and make it more interesting. It is also to see whether the work of others especially in the school system is in line with stated standard. Supervision is usually concerned with the general structure of the school. It deals with anything from the school curriculum to the welfare of students and teachers. It look at the management variables such as plans, policies and programmes and then in conjunction with the other participants works out a mutually accepted formula for the supervision after considering all the prevailing conditions in the school and immediate environment. The supervisor earned respect by sharing his expertise and consideration on matters that were encountered during supervision. His responsibilities are: to correct, direct, teach, demonstrate, to assist in teaching techniques, confer with teachers, assist in processing of evaluation and examination and revising curriculum and courses of study, and encourage others and attending seminars and conferences. Indeed, in nearly every country, the Ministry of Education has set up a supervision service, whose main task is to control and offer support to schools’ teachers. It is somewhat surprising that, within literature and research, very little attention has been given to the organization of school supervision. This paper examines the concept of school supervision and some models for supervision, like school-site supervision model and classical supervision model, and the roles of school supervision in educational industry, as a panacea for academic standardization. It was recommended that governments of various countries across the globe should provide funds and qualified personnel for school supervision to enhance academic standard.
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Supply Chain Management and Completion of Petroleum Projects in Nigeria.

Author(s): OISAMOJE, M. D. AND ARELOEGBE, H. A. (2014)
Published at :European Journal of Logistics, Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 2(1), 71-89.
Projects are executed for several reasons. The elements of risk and uncertainty inherent in virtually all projects explain why the project characteristics like duration, cost and quality cannot be precisely predicted. This risk, uncertainty and other factors are responsible for the delays or even abandonment of several projects for which Nigeria is notorious. Procurement of goods and services is a crucial determinant of whether or not a project will be completed. With the Nigerian Petroleum Development Company as case study, this paper examined how project completion depends on supply chain management, of which procurement is an essential subset and proxy. The study was questionnaire-driven, and the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences was used to analyse the results vide chi square test, correlation and cross-tabulation. The research found that strict adherence to SCM practices, will facilitate prompt completion of petroleum projects with its attendant benefits to the stakeholders. Keywords: Completion, Just-in-time, Nigeria, Petroleum project, Procurement, Supply chain management
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Sustainable Fish Production Through Processing and Product Development: the Role of Fermented Fish Products.

Author(s): OBOH, I.P AND OBOH, F.O.J. (2009)
Published at :In: A.D.A. Ighoghojie, D. Kisamo, and M.O. Edema (Editors), Gender and the Millennium Development Goals (Proc.), Third World Organization for Women in Science African Regional Conference, Abuja, 16-20 November, 2009. 410-420.
SUSTAINABLE FISH PRODUCTION THROUGH PROCESSING AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF FERMENTED FISH PRODUCTS. BY: Oboh, I.P. Department of Environmental Biology, University of Benin and Oboh, F.O.J. Department of Basic Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City. Abstract Fish is a good and relatively cheap source of protein, and contains vitamins and minerals. More farmers are adopting aquaculture as an option for improving fish production and farm income. However, many fishing areas are far away from markets and since fish deteriorates rapidly, few tropical fish are sold fresh.
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Teacher Education and Professionlizing Teaching in Nigeria for National Development

Nigeria federation is an embodiment of social institutions that are manned by trained personnel produced by teachers; and that these institutions function collectively for national development, propelled our quest for the professionalization of teaching. The engineers, medical doctors, lawyers, military officers, police officers, politicians, accountant, pilots, scientists, etc, are made by teachers through teaching. It is therefore imperative that entrance into teaching be controlled and regulated by a professional body and this led to the recently established Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (Act 31 of 1993), charged with these responsibilities. Therefore, the professionalization of teaching and making the teacher the centre of educational reform in Nigeria, will enhance teachers’ productivity, reduce the systemic problems in the educational sector and place education as instrument par excellence for national development. This paper will thus, examine teacher education and professionalizing teaching in Nigeria for national development.
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The Application of Reverse Logistics Cost Model in the Management of Sachet Water

Published at :“BIU journal of social and management sciences Vol.4, Nos.1 and 2 29-52”
The effects of used sachet water are of great problem today. This, we examine with the application of reverse logistics as a model. The collection process and the appropriation of the cost for collection are considered. A model for the profit realization from remanufacturing returned of sachet water in as given period of time is proposed.
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