547 Publications

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Urban Area Path Loss Propagation Prediction and Optimisation Using Hata Model at 900mhz

Published at :International Organization of Scientific Research Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR - JAP)
This paper describes how Okumura Hata’s model is chosen and optimized for urban outdoor coverage in the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system operating in 800MHz UHF frequency band, South-south Nigeria. This optimized path loss model is based on the empirical measurements collected in the CDMA network focusing on the city centre of Benin, Edo state. It is developed by comparing the calculated path loss from collected measurements with the well-known path loss models within applicable frequency range of CDMA system, such as Hata, SUI, Lee, and Egli’s Model. The Hata model was chosen as a reference for this optimized path loss model development based on the closest path loss exponent and smallest mean error as compared to the measured path loss. This optimized Hata model is implemented in the path loss calculation during the validation process. Thus, this optimized model is successfully improved and would be more reliable to be applied in the Nigeria CDMA system for urban path loss calculation in the 800MHz frequency band. Key Words: propagation loss prediction, optimisation, Hata model, urban area
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Value Chain Analysis: a Strategic Tool for Development

This paper examines value chain as a strategic tool for development in Nigeria organisations. Improvements along the chain have been a topic of endless discussion in most of these organisations. The problem of not been able to meet customer’s needs efficiently and the slow pace of profit maximisation has given Nigerian organisations many concerns. The paper attempts to rectify this problem and also to ascertain the methods and approaches to adopt, so as to enhance improvements along the chain. A sample of some selected organisations in Nigeria was taken. The Z-test statistics was used in analysing the questionnaire administered. From our findings it was revealed that, with technological advancements, cost efficiency and quality delivery of services, customers will be satisfied better along the chain. The paper recommends that the cost for an activity can be reduced or improved upon if it does not adversely affect strategic advantages along the chain.
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Value Chain Analysis: a Strategic Tool for Development

Author(s): IYAMU, B.E. (2010)
This paper examines value chain as a strategic tool for development in Nigeria organisations. Improvements along the chain have been a topic of endless discussion in most of these organisations. The problem of not been able to meet customer’s needs efficiently and the slow pace of profit maximisation has given Nigerian organisations many concerns. The paper attempts to rectify this problem and also to ascertain the methods and approaches to adopt, so as to enhance improvements along the chain. A sample of some selected organisations in Nigeria was taken. The Z-test statistics was used in analysing the questionnaire administered. From our findings it was revealed that, with technological advancements, cost efficiency and quality delivery of services, customers will be satisfied better along the chain. The paper recommends that the cost for an activity can be reduced or improved upon if it does not adversely affect strategic advantages along the chain. Keywords: Value chain, Profit maximisation, Cost efficiency, Strategic advantages
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Vernonia Amygdalina Leaves: Phytochemical Analysis and Proximate Composition

Published at :Society for experimental Biology of Nigeria (NISEB)
Aims: This study was conducted to determine phytochemicals and proximate compositions of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of Vernonia amygdalina leaves for phytochemicals and proximate compositions were conducted using standard methods. Results: Vernonia amygdalina leaves contain phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. Results obtained on the proximate composition shows that Vernonia amygdalina leaves in percentage (%) contain dry matter (90.68±0.77), crude protein (22.81±0.17), crude fiber (18.17±0.06), moisture (9.32±0.67), ash (16.65±0.09), crude fat (4.34±0.04) and carbohydrate (38.03±0.06). Conclusion: The presence of phytochemicals like saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids explains the medicinal potentials of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in therapeutic uses. Also the leafy vegetables if consume in sufficient amount would contribute greatly to the nutritional and antioxidant requirement for human health and to the food security of Nigerian population.
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Vocation Teachers’ Perception of the Relevance of the Primary School Education to the Jss Pre-vocation Studies

Author(s): AGBONKOPLOR, U.M. AND OJO, E.E (2006)
Abstract This study focused on the vocational teachers’ perception of the relevance of primary school education to the junior Secondary School pre-vocational studies, Survey design was used which made use of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was structured into two clusters. The mean, standard deviation and t-test were the statistical tools used for the analysis of data. The result revealed that all the respondents agreed that the 18 identified items in the questionnaire covering objectives and instruction of the primary school education are relevant to the understanding and appreciation of Jess pre-vocational studies. This study also indicated a no significant difference between the mean rating of opinions of Jess heads of departments and teachers of pre-vocational studies. This study also indicated a no significant difference between the means rate of opinions of JSS heads of departments and teachers of pre-vocational studies. In view of its relevance and poor implementation, appropriate recommendations were proffered in order to enhance the realization of the pre-vocational goals.
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Wastewater Treatment Plants As a Source of Microbial Pathogens in Receiving Watersheds.

Published at :African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (25), pp. 2932-2944. Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB.
Wastewater treatment facilities have become sin quo non in ensuring the discharges of high quality wastewater effluents into receiving water bodies and consequence, a healthier environment. Due to massive worldwide increases in human population, water has been predicted to become one of the scarcest resources in the 21st century, and despite large advances in water and wastewater treatments, waterborne diseases still pose a major threat to public health worldwide. Several questions have been raised on the capacity of current wastewater treatment regimes to remove pathogens from wastewater with many waterborne diseases linked to supposedly treated water supplies. One of the major gaps in the knowledge of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater is the lack of a thorough understanding of the survival and persistence of the different microbial types in different conditions and environments. This therefore brings to the fore the need for a thorough research into the movement and behavior of these microorganisms in wastewaters. In this review paper we give an overview of wastewater treatment practices with particular emphasis on the removal of microbial pathogens. Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, microbial pathogens, watershed.
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Water Pollution: a Review of Microbial Quality and Health Concerns of Water, Sediment and Fish in the Aquatic Ecosystem. Nigerian Journal Agriculture and Forestry (njaf), Vol. 4 No. 1: 110 - 118

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E.; AGBONLAHOR, D. E.; OBANO, E. E (2010)
This paper reviewed aquatic ecosystem pollution with particular reference to pathogens I water, sediments and fish and their human health concerns. It highlighted the historical perspective of the relationship between microbes and humans regarding the "ranging war" between them, arising from the reckless exploitation of the biosphere by humans and the resultant "revolt" by microbes in the form of various pathogenic diseases that now plague mankind. Also highlighted are pathogens and diseases in both wild and cultured fish, citing reported cases in Nigeria to include Samonella, Shigella and Leptospira spp., Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas florescens, Aeromonas hydrophilia, Staphylococus aureus, Klebsiella aerogenes, Edwardsiella tarda and Flexibacter columnaris. Some human diseases contacted from contaminated/infected fish and fisheries products include: food poisoning and gastroenteritis, diarrhea, bacillary dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid, clonorchiasis and superficial wound infections and ulcers. In conclusion, the paper reviewed the modes of infection of water related and fish- borne diseases of human health concerns and recommended ways to ameliorate their infection and spread.
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Web Threat and Its Implication for E-business in Nigeria

Author(s): K OBAHIAGBON, A.E ODION, A.E OKPAH (2012)
Published at :African Journal Online Vol. 9 No. 2, 2012. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ict/article/view/87093
Web threat is any threat that uses the internet to facilitate identity theft , fraud, espionage and intelligence gathering. Web -based vulnerabilities now outnumber traditional computer security concerns. Such threats use multiple types of malware and fraud, all of which utilize HTTP or HTTPS protocols, but may also employ other protocols and components, such as links in email or IM, or malware attachments or on servers that access the Web. In Nigeria this threat is usually in the form spam and phishing. This paper therefore explained some of the methods cybercriminals use to perpetrate web threat and measures that should be taken by relevant authority to minimize the impact posed by such threat to e-business.
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Winning the War Against Corruption in Nigeria-a Legal Appraisal*

Author(s): JESUOROBO E. IDUGBOE ESQ. (2011)
This paper discusses corruption in Nigeria as part of a global phenomena whose causes and adverse consequences are as varied as they are complex. Nigeria is one of the most vibrant markets in Africa, with an entrepreneurial business culture and recent reforms in the banking sector that have won international plaudits. However, despite Nigeria's size, and the energy and talents of its people, it has failed to achieve its full potential. The reasons include poor leadership, poor infrastructure and a history of high levels of corruption. The Nigerian society has long been notorious for graft, partly as a result of the country's reputation as the world leader in financial crime, but also because of the systematic abuse of its oil wealth over several decades by the political class.. The long years of military rule has entrenched corruption in Nigeria almost becoming institutionalized. In a paper delivered at the Nigerian all Judges Conference held in Abuja in 2007, the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Antonio Maria Costa stated that unscrupulous leaders pilfered the national coffers and slashed away billions of dollars into foreign bank accounts to the tune of U.S. $400 billion between 1960 when Nigeria gained independence and 1999 when Otusegun Aremu Obasanjo was sworn in as democratically elected President. Sani Abacha alone was estimated to have stolen 2.3% of the country's gross
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Women Poor Aspiration to Political Offices in Nigeria: a Trend Consonant with Societal Male Chauvinist Perception.

Author(s): ODUH, W.A (2001)
Published at :Studies in Gender Discrimination in the 21st Century.
The study investigated poor aspiration of Nigerian women to political offices. 100 subjects made up of 56 males and 46 females were used for the study and these were drawn from two settings- one homogeneous and one heterogeneous- work setting. It is a descriptive survey, hence the questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Data were organised into frequency tables and descriptive statistics was used for answering the two research questions that guided the study. On the other hand, the Chi-square (x2) test was used for testing the two null hypotheses formulated. The study revealed that male subjects perceived Nigeria as a male society but the female subject countered this perception. Both male and female subjects agreed that the woman should not head the man. Thus, gender role stereotype, perception, culture and lack of confidence, on the part of the woman seemed to have militated against the woman in taking her rightful position in politics. The study strongly revealed that male and female subjects believed that the Nigerian woman is politically competent to contest elections. Finally, implications of these findings were noted and suggestions made.
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Youth Empowerment for Sustainable Future: a Pathway to National Development in Nigeria

The youth remains one of the greatest assets that any nation can possess. Potentially, they are the greatest investment for a society’s sustainable development and future. This is why it is universally acknowledged that positive fundamental and meaningful changes across cultural setting are usually engineered, fostered or shaped by the generation of youths in that society. Therefore, any culture, community and nation, whether macro or micro that allows a good percentage of her youths to be misdirected, risk her future viability and survival as sustainable future must include her youths. In Nigeria, youth empowerment has brought about a decrease in breakdown of law and order, low crime rate and intra-ethnic hostilities, increase in job creation and high productivity which have elicited national development. This paper examines youth empowerment for sustainable future as a pathway to national development in Nigeria. It was concluded that youth empowerment is a panacea for sustainable future and national development. The paper recommended that youths should be geared towards developing human and material resources, process and technological skills. This will sustain them occupationally and equip them better for technical work and self employment.
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‘the Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (adhd) Among Primary School Pupils of Benin Metropolis, Nigeria’

Author(s): E. O. EGBOCHUKU & ABIKWI, M. I. (2007)
ABSTRACT This study investigated the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd) among primary school pupils of Benin City, Edo State through a teacher questionnaire. Three selected public schools were drawn purposively from schools in Benin City, Edo state. The pupils were selected from primary one to six, and the age range was between 5 to 12 years (mean age was 9.13yrs). The instrument used was the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale. Six research questions were generated and the statistical tool used was percentages. Four hundred pupils were sampled, 94 (23.15%) were screened as having symptoms of ADHD of which 45 (47.87%) had the Hyperactivity type, 20 (21.28%) had the Inattention type and 29 (30.85%) had ADHD combined type. The result confirmed that pupils in primary schools suffer more from ADHD hyperactivity type than inattention and the combined type. The sex ratio for ADHD combined type and Inattention type is about 2:1, while hyperactivity is 1:1 Gender difference was found to vary across ADHD type. Boys being generally rated as more impaired in the combined with a prevalence of 21 (8.90%) but equally or less impaired with hyperactivity-impulsive subtype 28 (11.86%) and 9 (3.81%) in the inattention group. These findings suggest that there is a prevalence of ADHD in Edo State.
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“a Comparative Analysis of Directorship in Nigeria Vis a Vis the Jurisdictions of British Columbia, Canada and India.” (2012) African Journal of Contemporary Issues, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroun, Vol. 12, No. 1, Pp. 42-50.

Author(s): OKWEZUZU, G. E. (2012)
This paper comparatively explores the statutory provisions of the companies’ legislations of various jurisdictions including the Nigerian Companies and Allied Matters Act, the British Columbian Company Act, the Canada Corporations Act, and the Indian Companies Act, with a primary focus on company directorship. In the course of this study, it has been discovered that though the Companies and Allied Matters Act is a worthy and commendable attempt to evolve an indigenous companies’ legislation in Nigeria, it is submitted that the provisions of the Act on the company director have certain shortcomings and inadequacies; we have therefore humbly made a number of recommendations to address them with the hope of enhancing the law on the Nigerian company director.
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“a Least Absolute Deviation Tuning Method to Reduce Signal Coverage Loss Prediction Error in Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Channel

The demand for increased mobile phone subscribers require an efficient radio network planning that involves an accurate prediction of propagation loss. Although various empirical loss models are in use, they are suitable for a particular environment or a specific cell radius. The tuning of a model is a process in which the parameters of the theoretical propagation model are adjusted with the help of measured values obtained from the experimental data. In this process, several model parameters can be changed. The objective of tuning is to obtain the values of the predicted model parameters to have a closest match with minimal prediction error to the experimentally measured data. In this paper, we have introduced a tuned least absolute deviation (LAD)-based Walficsh/Ikegami (W/I) model using measured UMTS strength data carried out in GRA, Benin City, Nigeria. We found that the performance of the tuned W/I model is the best as root mean square error is lower compared to least square based regression technique. The tuned model with LAD method best fit into BS 2 and BS 3 with an RMSE of 5.41 as compared to least square tuning method which has an average RMSE of 16.68 with BS 2 and BS 3. This successfully validates our tuning methodology and suggests that the tuned model is more accurate for the specified environment.
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“an Analysis of Gender Disparity in Students’ Enrolment into Education Science Disciplines in the University of Benin”.

Author(s): ERAIKHUEMEN, L. & ERAIKHUEMEN, I. B. (2010)
Published at :Journal of Mathematical Sciences, International Centre for 0n Advance Studies, India.
Abstract The study was designed to analyze students’ enrollment into education science disciplines for gender disparity. The sample comprised six discipline covering education biology, education chemistry, education computer science, education integrated science, education mathematics and education physics. Performa’s were the instrument for data collected were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistics. The result showed the gender disparity is most wide in education biology in favour of female and education physics in favour of male. In enrollment into the other four subject areas, there is keen competition between male and female. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the gender quality advocacy campaign should continue in order to completely estimate gender disparity in students’ enrollment into education science discipline.
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“an Appraisal of the Child’s Right to Dignity in Nigeria”, Biu Discourse Journal of Arts & Education, Vol. 2 No. 3 Pp.173-208

Author(s): IDEHEN, O. STELLA (2011)
Abstract The status of the Nigerian child with respect to his/her dignity as a human being has over the years been a great cause for concern. Everyday newspapers and television stations give gory accounts of the various forms of abuse that are meted out to children all over the Nation. This Article therefore, examines the rights of a child in Nigeria under our traditional set up, as well as national legislations and international Conventions with a view of finding where conflict arises. Solutions and recommendations will also be proffered so that the child’s dignity as a human can be preserved.
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“an Appraisal of United Nations Efforts in International Environmental Protection.” a Paper Presented at the World Congress on Contemporary Issues in International Law, 9th – 11th January, 2015, Vigyan Bhawan Auditorium and India Habitat Center, New Delhi, India.

Author(s): OKWEZUZU, G. E. (2015)
The paper looks into the efforts the United Nations has made with regard to international environmental protection, tracing the evolution of international environmental protection in the United Nations. It observes that while on the one hand laudable achievements have been recorded in efforts towards international environmental protection, on the other hand, serious shortcomings in such efforts are also glaring. The paper observes that in spite of the hundreds of internationally recognized treaties in existence, environmental deterioration continues to rise. The paper therefore recommends that in order to make the United Nations effective and efficient in its environmental protection efforts, instead of the current situation of institutional proliferation, there should be just one main multi-departmental UN environmental agency in charge of environmental protection with a well funded secretariat vested with enforcement authority by granting it institutional capacity as well as international jurisdiction. It further advocates that the notorious sluggishness in UN efforts should be reconciled with the increasing urgency required in global environmental protection.
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“an Assessment of Teacher Trainees’ Non-intellectual Traits: a Case Study of the National Teachers’ Institute”.

Author(s): ERAIKHUEMEN, L. & ERAIKHUEMEN, I. B. (2010)
Published at :Journal of Mathematical Sciences, International Centre for Advance Studies, India.
Abstract The study is designed to assess the non-intellectual traits of teacher trainees in NTI NCE distant learning programmed, 100 trainees randomly selected from the four circles of the programmed constituted the sample for the study. Four research questions were raised and four hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. The research instrument is questionnaire design to elicit information on trainee’s interest and teaching, attitude to teaching value internalization of teaching and self-concept. Data collected were analyzed using test of sample proportion at 5%level of significance. The result of data analyses revealed that a number of teacher trainees are not interested in teaching, have negative attitude to teaching, have not imbibed relevant value of teaching and have a negative self-concept. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the selection of entrants into teacher education programmed should be based not only on achievement test to determine the intellectual capability of the candidates, but also on aptitude test to access the compatibility of traits candidates’ non-intellectual traits with the teaching profession.
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“an Assessment of the Use of Information and Communication Technology by Mathematics Teachers in South–western Nigerian Secondary Schools.”

Author(s): ERAIKHUEMEN, I.B. & ERAIKHUEMEN, L. (2006)
Published at :The Journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria. 31, (3). 45 – 54.
Abstract Reaches are needed in developing countries to assess their investigation of information and communication technology (ICT) into school system. The study is designed to investigate the type of and frequency of use of ICT used by mathematics teachers, teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT and the key variable related to the use of ICT in mathematics teaching in south-western NIGERAIN secondary school. The sample for the study consisted of two hundred and sixteen (216) mathematics teachers randomly selected from the secondary school in south-western NIGERAIN. Five research question were raised to direct study. The instrument of research is a questionnaire titled: ‘’using ICT in mathematics teaching: teachers’ questionnaire”. Data collected were analyzed descriptive statistic. The result showed that 13out of the 216 teachers or 6% of the teachers had training on the use of ICT in mathematics teaching is significantly related to their pre-service training, their in-service training , availability of computers in classroom computer, computer laboratory and regular electricity supply. The study also revealed that all the teacher have positive attitude towards the use of ICT in mathematics teaching and 99% and willing to go for training on how to use ICT in mathematics teaching if given the opportunity. It was recommended among others that emphasis should be placed on skill related to the use of ICT in secondary school mathematics teacher’s preparation.
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“an Automatic Method for Choosing Window Width in the Kernel Density Estimation”.

Author(s): ERAIKHUEMEN, I. B. & ENAGBONMA O. (2007)
Published at :Abacus. The journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria. 34. (28). 279 – 287.
Abstract The work is concerned with the density estimation, which deals with the construction of an estimate of the function from observed data. We obtained kernel method for the unwarranted data, under which we discuss the measure of discrepancy bias, variance the optimal window width of various higher derivatives and their corresponding risk function (MISE). Here we are proposing a method in the choosing of the windows width called the automatic method in place of the subjective choice.
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“an Examination of International Convention and Selected National Laws on the Protection of the Child Rights Against Exploitation” Journal of Public and International Law

Author(s): GBADAMOSI O.A & IDEHEN, S.O. (2012)
Abstract This article examines the international legal frameworks put in place for protection of the child from exploitative labour and the prohibition and elimination of child labour. This paper presents the current status of enforceable laws in a number of countries and universal standards on the rights of children to be protected against exploitative labour. The paper advocates that the practical implementation of international legal instruments and national will go a long way to protect the best interests of the child and eliminate exploitative labour which is injurious to the health, survival, well being and development of the child.
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“belligerency and the Right of Self Determination in International Law: Some African Illustrations” in M. O. U. Gasiokwu (ed.) Law, Politics and Diplomacy in Contemporary Nigeria. (enugu: Chenglo Ltd, 2010) Pp. 93-117.

Author(s): (I) GASIOKWU, M. O. U. (II) OKWEZUZU, G. E. (2010)
This paper critically examines the provisions of various international and regional instruments for the right of self-determination of peoples with a view to clarifying what the right indeed embraces. It looks into the provisions for the right in the United Nations Charter and other instruments made under the umbrella of the United Nations such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as well as other international and regional human rights instruments such as the Helsinki Final Act, 1975, and the African Charter of Human and Peoples Right, 1981. The work dwells on the meaning of self-determination; the evolution of the right as a legal principle recognized in international law; the scope of the right of self-determination touching on who the right holders (the “people”) are, its relevance beyond colonial contexts, and whether the right permits secession. It further explores “belligerency” vis-à-vis self-determination with the experience in some African countries as the main focus.
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“domestic Violence Against Women in Nigeria: a Critique”, Nasarawa State Journal University Law Journal, Vol. 4 No. 1 Pp. 16-45

Author(s): IDEHEN, O. STELLA (2011)
Abstract Domestic violence against women in Nigeria is one of the worst gender – based violence at it has severe consequences on the women. It takes different forms and is usually carried out by familiar members of the home. The Nigerian woman in the home can best be described as the silent voice who bears the heavy burden of being violated in the home without any hope of being free until it becomes too late. Reports made by brutalised women to the police often end up being trivalised and more than often, the women are told to return home to beg their partners for the purposes of an amicable settlement as such issues are always termed a family matter. Despite the growing recognition of violence against women, violence continues to increase unabated. There is therefore the end to stop it. This paper will attempt to examine the various forms of domestic violence that occur in the home, causes and effects of such violence, existing laws shall be examined to find out if these laws have been adequate in reducing domestic violence as well as providing recommendations to stem domestic violence.
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“electron Interaction at Low Filling in Two Dimensions Using a Simplification of the Modified Lanczos Technique

Author(s): E.O. OSAFILE, D.O. OJUH AND J.O.A. IDIODI (2013)
Published at :Greener Journal of Science, Engineering and Technological Research ISSN: 2276-7835 Vol. 3 (4), pp. 135-143.
ABSTRACT In this paper, a detailed study of the dynamics of the behavior of two electrons in two dimensions is carried out. Over the years, the Hubbard model has been heavily used as one of the standard models for the study of strongly correlated electron systems. Despite this, the mechanism of interaction of these electrons in two- dimensional systems is yet to be properly understood. Based on this clarity problem, a modification of the standard Lanczos algorithm which is slightly different, simpler and more analytical than that presented by Dagotto in his review paper is used in a concerted attempt to produce relevant results for the correlated ground state energies and wave functions and the behavior of the interacting pairs is explained with the aid of the well known single band Hubbard model. Hence this study has been able to develop, stabilize and utilize a simplified modification of the standard Lanczos technique. From results obtained, for large and positive values of u, interaction is repulsive while it is attractive for negative values of u. The wave function can be readily obtained at the end of each step of iteration. Keywords: Standard Lanczos technique, Hubbard model, Modified Lanczos technique, two- dimensional systems.
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“environmental Impact Assessment As Key to Sustainable Development in Nigeria: a Reappraisal, Biu Law Journal, Vol.1 No. 1 Pp. 120-146

Author(s): IDEHEN, O.STELLA (2011)
Abstract Environmental Impact Assessment has over the years been recognized universally as a tool for sustainable development. This is done with the aim of preserving the environment from wanton degradation which is presently ravaging the earth with its attendant consequences of global warming, flooding, earthquakes, etc. Nigeria in this vein has embraced the Environmental Impact Assessment concept. This paper examined how effective the concept has been used by Government to achieve sustainable development; considered the constraints faced in using the concept in arriving at such goal and made recommendations that could be employed in bringing about sustainable development in Nigeria.
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