547 Publications

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Analysis of Smoke Processing, Storage and Distribution of Catfishes in Edo State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Applied Sciences Vol. 32: 52 - 66 (issn 0795-1353)

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. AND OJOGHO, O. (2014)
The study examined smoke-processing method, storage and distribution of catfishes : Clariids (Heterobranchus and Clarias spp.) and Mochokids (Mochocus and Synodontis spp.) in Etsako East, Etsako Central and Esan North East Local Government Areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire, administered to purposively selected 75 respondents made up of 25 processors, 25 retailers and 25 customers from three 93) markets in Anegbette, Agenebode and Illushi within the study area. Data generated were subjected to both descriptive (frequency count, mean percentages) and inferential (chi-square, gross margin, multinomial logit) statistics using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17 software. The results showed that catfish smoke-processing and retailing business in the area were mainly (100%) by women, majority of whom were married but no formal education. It also showed that the dominant processing method was the traditional hot-smoking, in cut-out oil drums (kilns), with smoking duration lasting 4 hours on average. Sales and consumers' preference for smoked catfish were rated high due to taste, flavor and protein value of products. The results further showed that small-scale traditional smoked catfish processing, distribution and retailing business in the area is profitable, and identified inadequate finance as a major constraint. It was also showed that there was no significant difference in income, quantity of processed catfish and duration of smoking by processors, but there was significant difference in the age among processors, retailers and consumers. In addition, it was also shown that income has no impact on the storage and distribution channels in the study area, except the storage method.
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Analysis of the Pulp and Pulp Oil of the Tucum (astrocaryum Vulgare Mart) Fruit

Author(s): OBOH, F.O.J. & ODERINDE, R. A. (1988)
Published at :Food Chemistry
Abstract Pulp composition, lipid classes, fatty acid composition, fatty acid distribution in triglycerides and triglyceride composition of pulp oil from the fruit of the Astrocaryum vulgare (Mart) palm have been studied. Triglycerides were the major species, accounting for 86•8% of the oil. Palmitic and oleic acids were the dominant fatty acids in whole oil, triglycerides and in the 2-position of triglycerides. A. vulgare pulp oil contained a broad range of triglycerides, the major types of which were S2U (31•4 mol.%) and SU2 (43•1 mol.%). S3 and U3 accounted for 6•9 mol.% and 18•6 mol.%, respectively. Proximate analysis of pulp gave: protein, 5•9%; crude fibre, 5•7%; ash, 1•9%; carbohydrate, 19•5%; oil, 22•0% and moisture, 45•0%. Copyright © 1988 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Analysis of Wave Propagation in a Homogeneous Dielectric Crystal

Author(s): UGWU E. I., OLAYINKA A. S. AND OLABODE F. I. (2009)
Published at :Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 4 (2): 126-131,2009
Wave propagation through crystal was analysed using wave equation in conjunction with pseudo-dielectric function. Considered in the analysed were the patterns of propagated wave for UV, Visible and near Infrared for a particular value of dielectric constant of the crystal. The relationship between wavenumber and refractive, optical conductance and absorption co-efficient were analysed. The effects of focusing angle on the crystal for various wave-length regions were also considered.
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Antibiograms of Salmonella Isolates from Poultry Farms in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria

Author(s): STEPHEN A. ENABULELE, PEACE O. AMUNE, AND WAKILI T. ABORISADE (2010)
Published at :Agricultural and Biological Journal of North America, 1(6): 1287-1290.
ABSTRACT Water, fecal and swab samples of poultry walls and cages collected from various poultry farms located in five towns and villages in Ovia North east local government area of Edo State, Nigeria, were screened for the presence of Salmonella spp and antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates. The prevalence rates recorded shows that Salmonella was isolated from all the sources investigated with varying rates which ranged from 27% for poultry cages to 80% recorded for fecal samples. Overall prevalence rates based on location ranged from 48% to 76%. Result of the resistance pattern of the Salmonella isolates from the various farms reveal that 62% of total 304 isolates tested were resistant to one or more of the antibiotics used with no significant difference in resistance pattern between the locations. Resistance to ampicillin appears to be the most common and was the highest (43%), followed by trimethoprim-sulphamethozazole (39%) and streptomycin (29%), with cephalexin (9%) and gentamycin (10%) recording the least resistance. Worrisome however is the fact the fluoroquinolones which are comparatively new, expensive and could be drug of choice should there be an outbreak, showed some significant degree of resistance (17%). The findings from this study present a potential health problem and are suggestive of the extent of misuse of drugs in medical and veterinary practice in Nigeria.
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Antibiotic Synergy Interaction Against Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from an Abattoir Effluent Environment.

Author(s): ETINOSA O. IGBINOSA, EMMANUEL E. ODJADJARE, ISOKEN H. IGBINOSA, PHILLIPS O. ORHUE, MAY M.O. OMOIGBERALE AND NAPOLEON I. AMHANRE (2012)
Published at :The Scientific World Journal, Article ID 308034; doi:10.1100/2012/308034.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen in environmental waters with a high prevalence of multidrug resistance. In this study the synergistic efficacy of synergy antibiotic combinations in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from an abattoir effluent was investigated. Water samples were processed using membrane filtration; Pseudomonas was isolated with Pseudomonas Isolation Agar and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with specie-specific primer. Susceptibility studies and in vitro synergy interaction testing were carried out, employing agar dilution and Etest procedure, respectively. Resistance was noted for clinically relevant antipseudomonal agents tested. Finding from antibiotic synergy interaction studies revealed that cefepime, imipenem, and meropenem combined with amikacin resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.0001) in vitro antibiotics synergy interaction, indicating the possible use of this regimen in treatment of pseudomonal infections.
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Antihepatotoxic Efficacy of Vernonia Amygdalina Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Dimethylnitrosamine (dmn)-induced Liver Damage in Rats

Author(s): USUNOBUN USUNOMENA (2014)
Published at :International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research,
Introduction: Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) is a potent hepatotoxin, carcinogen and mutagen whose toxicity is mediated by its reactive metabolites and not by the parent compound. The antihepatotoxic efficacy of ethanolic leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina against DMN-induced liver damage in rats thus, needs to be investigated. Methodology: Rats were given DMN, at a single dose of 12 g/kg body weight orally on day 8 after pretreatment with 400mg/kg Vernonia amygdalina for 7days and thereafter investigated for toxicity and hepatoprotection 48 hours later. Result: DMN produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the significant rise (p?0.05) in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC) and decrease in serum total protein (TP), globulin, albumin, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), packed cell volume (PCV), platelets and hemoglobin (HB) levels compared to control. However, Pretreatment of rats with ethanolic leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina (400 mg/kg body weight) once daily for seven days to DMN treated rats significantly attenuated (p?0.05) the toxicity by DMN. Conclusion: Ethanolic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina having antihepatotoxic properties minimized the deleterious effects generated by the hepatotoxin, DMN, thereby suggesting its use as a potent antihepatotoxic agent.
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Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemistry of Khaya Senegalensis Roots.

Author(s): IDU M. AND IGELEKE C.L. (2012)
Published at :International Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine 2 (3): 416 - 422
Crude extracts of Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss roots were investigated for antimicrobial activity and were found to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphyloccoccus aureus. Bacillus subtilis. Eshcerichia coli and Candida albican, but did not inhibit the growth of Peniciliium notatum and Aspergillus niger. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 6.0mg/ml to 14.0mg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) ranged from 8.0mg/ml - 20.0mg/ml. When the extracts were compared with standard antibiotics (control) gentimycin (GN) and ciproflaxacin (CPX), it was observed that the control had a higher antimicrobial activity than the samples at the concentrations used. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the root extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phylates and oxalates. The quantitative phytochemical analysis showed a high quantity of tannins (7.12mg/100mg), phylate (4.75mg/100mg) and alkaloid (3.36mg/100mg). The proximate nutritive values also showed a high presence of potassium (52.57mg/kg), sodium (34.54mg/kg), calcium (18.43mg/kg), and magnesium (24mg/kg). Other elements observed were zinc (12.86mg/kg), iron (7.95mg/kg), magnesium (5.79mg.kg), lead (2.03mg/kg) and chromium (1.42mg/kg). The sensitivity of these organisms to K.senegalensis root extract is an indication that it can be potentially useful for the treatment of their pathologies. Key words: Antimicrobial, phytochemistry, Khaya senegalensis, roots.
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Antimicrobial Properties of the Extracts of Locally Sold Garlic and Neem Leaf in Benin City, Nigeria.

Author(s): IRORERE, U.V., AND IGELEKE, C.L (2012)
Published at :International Journal of Biosciences 2 (4): 21-27
Different varieties of medicinal plants have been reported and a recent study on various herbal plants sold in Benin City, Nigeria, has revealed the presence of disease causing organisms present on them. This report questions the antimicrobial potency of these locally sold varieties of medicinal plants. In this study, we obtained garlic and neem leaf from local herbal practitioners in Benin City, Nigeria, and prepared three different extracts (methanol, acetone and chloroform) of both samples. We then used the disc diffusion method of antimicrobial assay to analyse the antimicrobial properties of these extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Our results showed that at least two of the test organisms are susceptible to each garlic extract, with the chloroform extract having the most antimicrobial property against all microorganisms at concentration as low as 2.26mg/ml. The extracts of neem leaf however showed antimicrobial property against S.aureus and E.coli only with the acetone extract having the highest antimicrobial potency against these two organisms at a concentration of 6.84mg/ml. These results thus revealed that the antimicrobial property of locally sold garlic and neem leaf for herbal medicines. However, it is suggested that these plants be thoroughly washed with water before use to reduce or eliminate any microbial contamination due to field contamination. Key words: antimicrobial, garlic, neem leaf.
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Antimicrobial, Nutritional and Phytochemical Properties of Monodora Myristica Seeds

Author(s): STEPHEN A. ENABULELE, FRED O. J. OBOH AND ESEOSA O. UWADIAE (2014)
Published at :Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 9(4 version III):1 - 6
Abstract: Seeds of Monodora myristica was investigated for its antimicrobial, nutritional and phytochemical properties. Results of the study, shows that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the seeds, were active against both gram negative and gram positive organisms used. Important bioactive constituents found to be present in the extracts were alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. Yield extracts of the powdered seeds, was for water 7.94% and ethanol 12.5%, indicating that ethanol was the better of the two solvents used. Results of the antibacterial activity of the extracts reveal that the ethanolic extracts at different concentrations were more active against the test organisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi than the aqueous extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the aqueous extract ranged between 2.5 and 3.0 mg/ml while that for ethanolic extract was between 2.5 and 3.5 mg/ml. The minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) values for aqueous extract ranged between 3.0 and 3.5 mg/ml while that for ethanolic extract ranged between 3.5 and 4.0 mg/ml. Nutritionally result from the study justifies the use of the seed as both a spice and food component by locals. The seed was particularly found to be very rich in potassium and magnesium. There is therefore the need for further studies on the active components of the seeds of Monodora myristica so as to maximize its medicinal and nutritional potential.
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Antimicrobial, Nutritional and Phytochemical Properties of Perinari Excelsa Seeds.

Author(s): STEPHEN A. ENABULELE AND JOSEPH E. EHIAGBONARE (2011)
Published at :International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2(3): B459-B470
ABSTRACT Seeds of Perinari excelsa were investigated for its antimicrobial, nutritional and phytochemical properties. Results of the study show that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the seed were active against both gram negative and gram positive organisms used. Important bioactive constituents present in the extracts were alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannins. Yield extracts of the powdered seeds, was 8.45% for water and 6.32% for ethanol indicating that water was the better of the two solvents used. Results of the antibacterial activity of the extracts reveal that the ethanolic extracts at different concentrations were more active against the test organisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi than the aqueous extracts. The MIC values for the aqueous extract ranged between 13.0 and 14.0 mg/ml while that of ethanolic extract was between 12.5 and 14.0 mg/ml. The MBC values for aqueous extract ranged between 14.0 and 15.5 mg/ml while that of ethanolic extract ranged between 13.0 and 15.0 mg/ml. Nutritionally, result from the study justifies the use of the seed both as spice and food component by locals. The seed was particularly found to be very rich in iron. Therefore there is a need for further studies on the plant seed in order to isolate, identify and characterize the active components to maximize the potential of this useful seed.
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Application of Methodological Approach in Public Relations and Advertising Research

Author(s): OBOH, G.E. (2006)
Published at : International Journal of Communication: An interdisciplinary Journal of Communication Studies,’ Department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria, (4) pp.56-66 ( ISSN: 1597-4324)
This study explored some methodological patterns public relations and advertising experts could employ, with some modifications while carrying out public relations and advertising research. Some research methods that can be employed in public relations and advertising research were discussed. But it was discovered that public relations variables are amenable to empirical verifications, while advertising research, basically, is a function of intuitive judgment and creative ingenuity.
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Application of the Hierarchal Achievement Motivation Model to Teachers’ Trainees As Predictor of the Quality Future Teachers in Nigeria

Author(s): AGBONKPOLO, U. M. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BENSON IDAHOSA UNIVERSITY, BENIN CITY AND AYE — OMORUYI, B. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BENSON IDAHOSA UNIVERSITY, BENIN CITY. (2013)
Published at :A JOURNAL OF COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (JCRD) VOLUME 1, NUMBER 1
Abstract The paper is an application of the hierarchal achievement motivation model to teacher trainees in Nigeria Universities as predictor of the quality of future teachers in Nigeria. The paper began with the examination of the premises of the study: socio — economic status of teacher, achievement motivation among teacher trainees and the hierarchal achievement motivation model. Based on this model the researchers went further to interpret the achievement motives among teacher, trainees and shows their achievement related attitude and behaviour. The last section of the paper examines the ultimate consequence of this chain of events on the quality of graduate teachers and manpower development in Nigeria. In conclusion, the researchers deduced some policy options from the research findings as means of enhancing the quality of graduate teachers in Nigeria.
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Arrest of Ship As an Option in Enforcing Mortgage Security

Author(s): UMAHI O. T. * & NWANO, T. C. ** (2002)
The focus of this paper is arrest of ship as an option in enforcing security in maritime transactions. It is the finding of the writers that clauses transferring power of sale with specifics on arrest to the mortgagee should be drafted, inserted, agreed and endorsed by all the parties in standard mortgage agreements. This will make possible that upon the power of sale becoming arising and exercisable, ship arrest would become an excellent way of obtaining security for a claim and potential for a judicial sale of the vessel.
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Aspects De La NÉgritude À Travers Monsieur ThÔgÔ-gnini De Bernard DadiÉ

Author(s): OGIRIKI, AGNES (2011)
Published at :BIUDISCOURSE: JOURNAL OF ARTS & EDUCATION
Le Blanc a toujours opprimé l’homme noir par des moyens différents. À travers le colonialisme, il a bien dominé et exploité l’homme noir en volant ses biens économiques, culturels, sociaux et physiques ainsi que sa race et son identité. L’effet du colonialisme est devenu désastreux et douloureux et le Blanc colonisateur ne semblait pas se soucier du bien-être de l’homme noir. L’homme noir, asservi, aliéné et méprisé à cause de sa couleur, et étant conscient de la méchanceté des maîtres coloniaux, n’est plus à l’aise. Ayant subi l’influence occidentale, il se sert de l’arme acquise des Blancs pour lutter contre eux avec le but de réclamer sa propre identité. Ce travail vise à discuter les aspects de la négritude chez Bernard Dadié. Il montre comment Bernard Dadié évoque, dans Monsieur Thôgô-gnini, les aspects de la Négritude, en étudiant les différentes manières dont elle se manifeste : d’abord, comme un cri de révolte sous forme de critique ouverte, puis comme plainte, refus, reconnaissance voire acceptation, et revendication.
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Audit Expectation Gap: the Nigerian Banking Experience

Author(s): BEAUTY EKIOMADO EGUASA (2011)
The audit profession believes the increase in litigation against it, and criticism of auditors can be traced to an audit expectation gap. This paper reports the findings of a questionnaire survey on the audit expectation gap conducted in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to examine whether an expectation gap exist in Nigerian banks among the auditors, auditees and audit beneficiaries in relation to the auditors duties. Since such an expectation gap was shown to exist, this study analyses the nature of the gap using Porter’s (1993) framework. The Chi-Square test statistics was used in the analysis. The result proved the existence of an audit expectation gap in Nigerian banks. The analysis of the expectation gaps indicated the existence of unreasonable expectations of the art of users, deficient performance of auditors.
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Audit Expectation Gap: the Nigerian Banking Experience

Author(s): EGUASA, B.E. & OBARETIN, O. (2011)
The audit profession believes the increase in litigation against it, and criticism of auditors can be traced to an audit expectation gap. This paper reports the findings of a questionnaire survey on the audit expectation gap conducted in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to examine whether an expectation gap exist in Nigerian banks among the auditors, auditees and audit beneficiaries in relation to the auditors duties. Since such an expectation gap was shown to exist, this study analyses the nature of the gap using Porter’s (1993) framework. The Chi-Square test statistics was used in the analysis. The result proved the existence of an audit expectation gap in Nigerian banks. The analysis of the expectation gaps indicated the existence of unreasonable expectations of the art of users, deficient performance of auditors.
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Automated Medical Diagnostic System

Author(s): KONYEHA S. AND KONYEHA C. C. (2008)
Published at :Nigerian Institute for Biomedical Engineering (NIBE)
An automated medical diagnostic system (AUTOMEDS) is described that contains information from best practice protocols about various medical illnesses, their respective symptoms and treatments. Prominent amongst these diseases are malaria, typhoid, pneumonia and peptic ulcer. The structured programming Analysis Design method (SSADM) and the expert system methodology are adopted to help model the system. ASP.NET (Active Server Pages .Network) was chosen as the platform for implementation. The whole idea of the medical expert system is based on the notion of human computer interaction. A case study of 50 patients whose cases were detailed at the University of Benin Health centre and another 50 patients at the Central hospital, Benin was considered. The symptoms they gave were diagnosed with AUTOMEDS. The total number of patients used to test AUTOMEDS was 100 patients. From the results, 98% cases were successfully diagnosed, while 2% were not. This is accredited to differentials in their symptomatology.
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Awareness of Defamation Among Journalists in Abuja

Author(s): EGBULEFU, C.C. (2010)
Published at :Makurdi Journal of Communication Research Vol. (1), No. 2, pp.106-119.
Journalism practice no doubt is faced with numerous challenges world over. Journalists are detained, harassed, accused of invasion of privacy and sued for defamation of character. In Nigeria the story is not different. Several media houses at one time or the other have been sued for libelous publications. In this regard, the researcher went on to find out whether journalists are knowledgeable of defamation law and the best way(s) to handle it. The researcher used Abuja Chapel of the National Union of Journalists (NUJ) as sample population. Fifty journalists were administered questionnaire. The research objectives were (a) to find out whether Nigerian Journalists are conversant with defamation laws (b) to ascertain the best way to handle defamation cases and (c) to identify who is qualified to practice journalism. It was found out that journalists understood what defamation law is though most of them does not know the pleas available to them. That defamation should be avoided by being knowledgeable in media law. Also, the research revealed that most people that practice journalism in Nigeria lacked the pre-requisite qualifications. It was recommended that quacks in the profession should be shown the way out or be trained. That Journalists should be conversant with media law (defamation law) for effective practice.
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Bacteriological Evaluation and Preservation of Hevea Brasiliensis Field Latex.

Author(s): OMORUSI, V. I., IGELEKE, C.L., OGBEBOR, N.O., EVUEH, G.A., ORUMWENSE, K., IJIE, K., AND OGIERIAKHI, S. (2011)
Published at :Nigerian Journal of Plant Protection 25 (2): 214- 220.
Samples of freshly tapped filed latex of Hevea trees were investigated for microbiological properties. Bacterial counts were highest in the 10 -3 than in the 10 -6 concentrations. Morphological characterization of isolates obtained were the short rods, long rods and cocci forms. Eight isolate forms were identified and designated as isolates - A, B,C,D,E,F,G and H. In particular, proliferation of isolates A,B and D was obtained when compared to the rest isolated int he 10 -3 concentration. Similarly, isolates A,C and D were high in the 10 -6 concentration. Isolates A, B,D and G completely fermented the non-latex substrates - glucose, fructose, galactose, manitol and lactose, and were predominantly gram-negative, aside G isolate which was only gram positive. Observable trends in the decrease in bacterial numbers from the first to the third month period of sampling indicated the effect of the preservative ammonia. This study also suggests the use of high concentration of ammonia as economically suitable for the preservation of latex not readily degraded by bacterial activity. Keywords: Hevea, latex, preservative, Morphological characterization; Bacterial isolates.
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Bacteriological Quality of Beef-contact Surfaces, Air Microflora and Wastewaters from Major Abattoirs Located in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

Author(s): OMORUYI, I.M. WOGU, M.D. AND ERAGA, E.M (2011)
Published at :International Journal of Biosciences, 3, 57-62
The bacteriological quality of beef produced from most abattoirs located in southern Nigeria has always been questionable. This work therefore investigated the bacteriological quality of abattoir facilities from both government and private owned abattoirs in Benin City, southern Nigeria. The results revealed that the total heterotrophic counts and total coliform counts exceeded the recommended standard for sanitary practices. Total heterotrophic counts from air flora ranged from 14.50 × 106 to 42.50 × 106 cfu. Beef-contact surface ranged from 26.50 × 106 to 592.50 × 106 cfu while total colony counts obtained from wastewaters from both government and private abattoirs ranged from 140.00 × 106 to 1206.75 × 106cfu/ml. The total coliform counts also ranged from 14.25 × 103 to 33.75 × 103 for air flora and 76.00 × 103 to 195.00 × 103cfu/ml for wastewaters. Eight bacterial isolates were consistently isolated during this study, and they included: Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp., Citrobacter sp., Alcaligenes paradoxus, Klebsiella sp. and Enterococcus faecalis with varying percentage of frequency across the sampling points. The presence of indicator organisms as well as possible pathogens in this study is of special concern and stakeholders should be encouraged to review the processes involved in the establishment as well as operation of abattoirs in Benin City, southern Nigeria.
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Ban on Commercial Motorcycle Operations in Benin City, Nigeria: an Appraisal of the Benefits and Business Opportunities.

Author(s): ASEKHAME, F. F. AND OISAMOJE, M. D. (2013)
Published at :IISTE Journal of Developing Country Studies, 3(14), 10-17.
This paper appraises the socio-economic implications of the ban on commercial motorcycle operations (CMOs) in Benin City, Nigeria. Deriving from the literature review, the paper posits that although CMOs offered a number of benefits to the users, but that they also had negative effects which include the increase in criminal activities such as armed robbery and kidnapping, and phenomenal rise in the number of motor traffic accidents, many of them fatal. Besides, there were strong indications that insurgents were planning to breach the security of the State by leveraging on the activities of CMOs. Therefore to checkmate the security threat and guarantee the safety and security of the populace, the state government banned CMOs in Benin City. The ban subjected many commuters to immense hardship but it has some benefits and it also created potential business opportunities which the paper identifies. Keywords: Ban, Benefits, Business opportunities, Commercial motorcycles, Insurgents, Operations, Security threat.
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Bello J. B. “child Labour and the Vulnerability of the Nigerian Child: Challenges for the Future

Author(s): BELLO JOSEPH (2013)
Published at :Benson Idahosa University
The International l abour Organization (ILO) Conventions and Recommendations on Child Labour admit that child labour is a problem of complex nature, which cannot be made to disappear simply by the stroke of a pen. The article pursue the view that unless social and economic factors, such as education, communal strife, tribal/religious conflicts and poverty are tackled, the childhood bliss of the Nigerian child, may be hampered. This article also takes a look at the risk the Nigerian child faces due to the scourge of child labour. Child labour has created a grave risk on the future of the Nigerian child. It has entrenched a dangerous trend of a deprived future for the child. The Nigerian child, is today a victim of a society which wallows in poverty and ignorance. This article observes that existing Legislations and Conventions are ineffective to curb child labour.
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Bioaccumulation of Chromium, Copper, Manganese, Nickel and Lead in a Freshwater Cichlid (hemichromis Fasciatus) from Ogba River in Benin City, Nigeria. African Journal of General Agriculture, Vol. 4, No.3: 141-152

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. (2008)
This study assessed and monitored the extent of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb bioaccumulation by the freshwater fish (Hemichromis fasciatus) from Ogba River in Benin City, Nigeria between November, 2004 and October, 2005. The effects of dry rainy season on the extent of bioaccumulation were specifically addressed. The results showed metals bioaccumulation levels differences (except Mn) at the sample stations which were also different at the stations which were attributed to the influence of drainage effluents influx into the river. Seasonal levels of the metals were also different at the stations. Higher dry season levels were ascribed to higher water temperatures, while rainy season high levels could result from pronounced leaching of metals. The finding that some metal accumulation levels exceeded WHO and FEPA recommended limits in food fish indicated that the fish of Ogba River might not be fit for human consumption. Consequently, close monitoring of metal pollution of Ogba River is strongly recommended
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Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Some Cichlids from Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria. Nigerian Annals of Natural Sciences, Vol. 5 (2): 11-27.

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. AND ORONSAYE, J. A. O. (2004)
The bioaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni and Pb in wholefish, Gill, offal and carcass samples of Oreochromis niloticus and Hemichromis fasciatus from the upper reaches of Ogba River was monitored for the period January to December, 2000 using standard methods. The results showed that all metals were bioaccumulated. The levels of Zn, Cd and Ni in fish samples were lower than WHO and FEPA recommended maximum acceptable limits in food and drinking water, but the levels of Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb were higher than these limits. The ecological risks posed by Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb in the river as well as risks to health are therefore considered high.
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Biodegradation of Gamalin-20 by Micrococcus Sp. (strain 189) in the Coastal Soils of Southeastern Nigeria.

Author(s): UGWA, I. K.; UKPONU, A. F.; OMORUSI, V. I. AND IGELEKE, C. L. (2013)
Published at :Nature and Science 11(5): 86-90
A soil microorganism capable of utilizing the widely used broad spectrum recalcitrant organo-chlorine insecticide. Gamalin-20, as primary carbon and energy source, was isolated from coastal soils of Akwete, Southern Nigeria. The procedure for isolation and screening of microbial strain involved serial dilutions of soil samples and plating on Gamalin-20 Minimal Medium Agar (GMMA). Isolates obtained were sub-cultured on Nutrient Agar, Blood Agar, and MacConkey Agar. Soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics. Growth determination of microbial isolates from the primary isolation in three batches of the soil samples (1, 8, and 9) were obtained based on their cultural characteristics and physiological properties. The organism was characterised as Micrococcus sp strain 189. The implication of this finding for the management of petroleum associated pollution is discussed. Key words: Bio-degradation; Bio-remediation;' Coastal soils; Gamalin-20, Micrococcus sp.
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