547 Publications

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Biodiversity and Sustainability of Freshwater Fishes of Nigeria. Proceedings F the 20th Annual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria (fison ), Port Harcourt,

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. AND ORONSAYE, J. A. O. (2005)
The fish diversity in Nigerian freshwater bodies has been reviewed. The mono recorded and endemic fish species as well as those with restricted distribution in the major rivers, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs which are considered potentially endangered are identified. The problems of fish resources conservation with highlights on the effects of frequent policy changes, auditing and sampling, analysis and taxonomy, pollution, management, land reclamation and drought on sustainability have been discussed and suggestions towards improvement made.
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Biu Law Series

Author(s): PROFESSOR C.C. OHURUOGU (2013)
Governance at all levels often comes face to face with the challenges of balancing the need for development in all ramifications and the protection of Human Rights. This is more so when the two interests appear opposed. Yet they are not mutually exclusive. This is the idea behind the concept of sustainable development. Globally, at least in societies that operate liberal democracy, the need to always adopt an inclusive attitude in development and governance has engendered greater peace and advanced the course of development. This approach which has gained currency remains largely on the periphery in most African states, Nigeria inclusive. This paper discusses the concept of Right Based Approach to Governance and Development and situates this within the context of Nigeria, positing that most of the frictions experienced in Nigeria could have been minimized had policy planners and executors adopted the RBA to governance and development.
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Boko Haram and Western Education in Nigeria: a Threat to Reliable and Sustainable Economic Growth in the 21st Century by

Author(s): JOHNSON AGBONAVBARE OSAIGBOVO, (PH. D) (2012)
The menace of boko haram amounts to genocide.  Their hatred for western education and its’ products has brought about insecurity and economic stagnation. Human and material resources are brought to functionless state. Boko haram activities are currently sending to grave untimely the productive ages of our economy. This paper examines the concept of boko haram and western education, ideology, insurgency, activities of boko haram, terror ties and policy prescriptions and criticism. And finally identifies multi-dimensional strategies aimed at bring to an end the menace of boko haram in Nigeria, as follows: ? Peaceful dialogue between Federal Government and boko haram sect ? Federal Government must reposition education sector. ? Reviewing of the current revenue allocation formula. ? Job opportunity for the unemployed ? Entrepreneurship should be encouraged by the three-tiers of governorship (Local, State and Federal) so as to eradicate property in the land. ? Availability of social amenities – (for example: pipe-borne water, good motorable roads and electricity) should be made available to the common man. ? The existing laws on act of terrorism and unwanted destruction of lives in the country should be strengthening by the National Assembly. ? Good governance, capable, reliable, trusted and transparent institution, should be our watch word.
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Boko Haram:religious Sect or Terrorist Organization

Author(s): MIKE OKEMI (2013)
Published at :EUROPEAN - AMERICAN JOURNAL
Abstract Terrorism is a globalized phenomenon confronting the international community. It has grown both in strength and trend and its impact felt in different parts of the world including Africa. This impact has lately been felt in northern Nigeria due to the activities of Boko Haram creating growing concern with the level of loss of lives recorded. In Nigeria, the group is usually referred to as a religious sect partly due to uncertainty as to its classification or designation or fear the group has created. When for example, President Obama referred to the group as a terrorist organization, President Jonathan countered his statement by saying its members are not terrorists. The media too refer to the group as a sect probably due to fear especially with the killing of a Television reporter and bombing of media houses. Boko Haram at inception was an Islamic group. With time, it became a sect due to its own beliefs or practices which has separated it from pure Islam. This paper believes that the group at birth in 2001 was a religious sect but has over time, graduated into a terrorist organization especially with its adoption and use of terror tactics. This paper examines the term terrorism and the various tactics employed by terrorist??™s organizations worldwide. It will consequently, do a comparative analysis between Boko Haram and well known terrorist organizations in terms of motivation, ideology, existence, grievances, tactics employed to address grievances etc. for proper classification as a terrorist organization, an international one or local terrorist organization. The paper will then attempt to suggest ways by which their activities can be curtailed and eliminated. Keywords: Boko Haram, Karijee Jihadists, Rogue Actors, Spherical Earth, Terrorism
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Capacity Development in Higher Education: a Toolkit for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Author(s): HEPHZIBAH- AWULOR, B.N. (2014)
Capacity development is a process of change, and hence is about managing transformations. People’s capacities, institutional capacity and a society’s capacity change over time. Capacity development in higher education is the cornerstone for sustainable development especially in the developing countries such as Nigeria. It is now acknowledged that quality education provided by higher education is crucial to sustainable development. Many of the nations in Africa, Nigeria inclusive are rapidly growing populations in higher education because of increase access and retention rate. Quality education can be actualized where the human and entrepreneurship capacity development are properly developed with the right knowledge, skills, value system and right attitude to work in a highly competitive knowledge based globalized economy. The government of Nigeria recently initiated higher education policy reforms intended to bring its university system more in line with international good practices. The reforms promote increased institutional autonomy, greater system differentiation, strengthened governance, and mechanisms for quality assurance. They seek to create a more flexible responsive system of university teaching and research that over time will contribute in increasingly to national innovation capacities, productivity, economic growth, and sustainable development. Human and entrepreneurship capacity development in higher education in a developing economy such as that of Nigeria will enhance the current and future labour force to produce productive manpower and entrepreneurs that can move the nation to scientific and technological development especially in this age of globalization. This paper examined capacity development in higher education as a toolkit for sustainable development in Nigeria. It was concluded that the quality of higher education in any nation determines the quality of its capacity development of human resources. The paper recommended that government should invest heavily in science, engineering and technological education that will elicit sustainable development in Nigeria.
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Capacity Development in Higher Education: a Toolkit for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Author(s): JOHNSON AGBONAVBARE OSAIGBOVO, (PH. D) (2013)
Capacity development is a process of change, and hence is about managing transformations. People’s capacities, institutional capacity and a society’s capacity change over time. Capacity development in higher education is the cornerstone for sustainable development especially in the developing countries such as Nigeria. It is now acknowledged that quality education provided by higher education is crucial to sustainable development. Many of the nations in Africa, Nigeria inclusive are rapidly growing populations in higher education because of increase access and retention rate. Quality education can be actualized where the human and entrepreneurship capacity development are properly developed with the right knowledge, skills, value system and right attitude to work in a highly competitive knowledge based globalized economy. The government of Nigeria recently initiated higher education policy reforms intended to bring its university system more in line with international good practices. The reforms promote increased institutional autonomy, greater system differentiation, strengthened governance, and mechanisms for quality assurance. They seek to create a more flexible responsive system of university teaching and research that over time will contribute in increasingly to national innovation capacities, productivity, economic growth, and sustainable development. Human and entrepreneurship capacity development in higher education in a developing economy such as that of Nigeria will enhance the current and future labour force to produce productive manpower and entrepreneurs that can move the nation to scientific and technological development especially in this age of globalization. This paper examined capacity development in higher education as a toolkit for sustainable development in Nigeria. It was concluded that the quality of higher education in any nation determines the quality of its capacity development of human resources. The paper recommended that government should invest heavily in science, engineering and technological education that will elicit sustainable development in Nigeria.
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Capacity of Smes in Nigeria to Access Institutional Equity Finance

Author(s): ERIKI, P.O. AND INEGBENEBOR, A.U. (2009)
Published at :Research Journal of Business Management, 3(1), 1-5
The objective of this study was to examine the capacity of SMEs in Nigeria to access the funds accumulated under the Small and Medium Enterprises Equity Investment Scheme. Data used was from the database created by the Central Bank of Nigeria which sponsored a baseline economic survey of all small and medium scale industries in Nigeria in 2004. The data base contained information on the characteristics of a total of 6,663 small and medium industrial firms across the seven Zones of the country. The study revealed that only a small percentage of the SMEs succeeded in accessing the funds. Only about 45% were aware of the scheme even though the management capacity of the firms was high and the scheme was given mass media coverage. On the basis of legal status criteria, only 36% of the firms indeed qualified to access the funds. The study recommends the establishment if Management Information desks by banks in Nigeria to facilitate the SMEs access to the funds
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Capital Flight and the Nigerian Economy

Author(s): DAVID UMORU (2013)
Published at :European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.4
The paper explores empirically the relative effect of capital outflows on the growth rate of GDP in Nigeria. To accomplish this task, three models of GDP growth rate were specified with each model incorporating a different measure of capital flight from Nigeria. The variables in the models were examined for possible co-integration. Research findings shows that capital flight impacts adversely on the growth rate of GDP and such growth rate effect of capital outflow is significant, capital control is insignificant in stimulating GDP growth rate in Nigeria, exchange controls are weak, industrial output is a veritable resource of GDP growth rate in Nigeria, public expenditure has significant positive impact on GDP growth rate in Nigeria and that the growth effects of domestic investment is insignificant in Nigeria. There is therefore the need for effective control of capital outflows. Also, there is an acute need to implement economic policies that can re-invigorate domestic investment and discourage capital flight in order to enhance economic growth in Nigeria.
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Causality Dynamics Between Money Supply and Inflation in Nigeria: a Toda-yamamoto Test and Error Correction Analysis

Author(s): UMORU DAVID & TIZHE N. ANN (2014)
Published at :Journal of Empirical Economics Vol. 3,
This paper examines the dynamics between money supply and inflation in Nigeria using the Toda-Yamamoto causality test and the error correction methodology from the period of 1980-2012. Causality is found to run from money stock to output and inflation within the confines of the Nigerian economy. The estimated inflation elasticity of money stock is 1.002. Accordingly, increase in money supply is proportionately matched by the increase in inflation rate in Nigeria. Therefore, the study concludes that inflation is a purely monetary phenomenon in Nigeria as the coefficient of broad money supply is equals unity.
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Challenges of Supreme Audit Institutions: Perspective of Auditor-general of Nigeria

Author(s): AUGUSTINE E. AKHIDIME (2013)
Oficial corruption remain one of the major challenges of Nigeria and has become deep-rooted in her public sector administration leading to severe consequences to the country’s economic and socio-political development. Public financial probity and accountability are promoted partly through the conduct of regular audits by the ofice of the Auditor-General, recognized as the Supreme Audit Institution (SAI) of any country. The Auditor General Ofice is expected to serve as a corner stone for good public sector governance through the provision of unbiased objective assessments of whether public resources are responsibly and efectively managed to achieve intended results. How efective has the Ofice of the Auditor General of the Federation of Nigeria been able to discharge her responsibilities, particular with respect to the curtailment of corruption in government and what possible challenges could be militating against this Nigerian Supreme Audit Institution and in what ways and means could these challenges be overcome are the pre-occupations of this paper? Through in-depth literature review and analysis of secondary data this paper traces the principal challenges of Nigeria’s Auditor-General Ofice to include the issues of independence, capacity building, political will of the Executive and the legislature to implement the Auditor-General’s report. The paper finds the efectiveness of the Auditor General’s Ofice and the curtailment of oficial corruption to lie squarely with the sincere and efective eforts towards the resolution of these challenges by the Government of Nigeria.
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Characterization of Zinc Sulphide/cadmium Sulphide (zns/cds) Superlattice by Electrodeposition Technique

Author(s): IKHIOYA, I.L, OKANIGBUAN, P.N, AGBAKWURU, C.B AND OSOLOBRI, B.U. (2015)
Published at :Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics
Zinc sulphide/cadmium sulphide (ZnS/CdS) superlattices have been successfully deposited on a glass substrate (Indium Tin oxide) by electrodeposition technique (ED) or electrochemical deposition technique (ECD). the absorbance was measured using M501 UV-visible spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-900nm. observation show that the absorbance of Zinc sulphide/Cadmium sulphide (ZnS/CdS) superlattice films is in the range of 0.04-0.35. cadmium sulphide/Zinc sulphide (ZnS/CdS) superlattice was investigated at room temperature. XRD analysis showed that the Zinc sulphide/Cadmium sulphide ZnS/CdS superlattice, so deposited, exhibit Hexagonal structure with a preferred orientation along (100) plane.
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Charting a Career Path for Counsellors in Nigeria: an Imperative for Job Satisfaction

Author(s): ODUH, W. A. & NWAKOBY, J. U. (2014)
Published at :Edo Journal of Counselling
An Imperative for Job Satisfaction This is a theoretical paper which attempted to stress the need to chart a different career path for the guidance counsellor in Nigeria other than the present practice where counsellors progress to and retire as either vice principal or principal. The paper argued that orientation of training of the school counsellor differs from that of the classroom teacher. While the teacher is prepared with a curriculum that helps the teacher develop the child cognitively, the counsellor is trained to manage the affective and personal social dimensions of the client in order to provide a conducive environment that enables the client actualize the intellectual goal of the child. The paper also observed that the only way to retain experienced guidance counsellors within the Nigerian school system is to create or chart new career path for the counsellor which enables him or her to retire as a Chief Counsellor while still recognizing the Principal as the chief executive of the school.
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Child and Human Trafficking in Nigeria", International Journal of Gender and Development Issues, Vol 1 No.1

Author(s): IDEHEN, S.O., EDEKO, M.O, & OBASOHAN, J.O (2013)
Abstract This paper examined child and human trafficking in Nigeria. The study observed that human trafficking had taken an alarming dimension in Nigeria such that it had become a big illegal criminal business. The paper reviewed the conceptual definition of human trafficking with emphasis on the particular nature of human trafficking in Nigeria, alongside the causes of human trafficking, trafficking routes, and the signs to identify possible traffickers as the study discussed the implications of human trafficking in the effort to entrench human rights in society. The paper further examines the legal and institutional frameworks for fighting crime associated with human trafficking by suggesting some of the ways state security could prevent and combat human trafficking in Nigeria.
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Child and Human Trafficking in Nigeria

Author(s): S.O IDEHEN(MRS),M.O. EDEKO (MRS), O.J OBASOHAN (MRS) (2013)
Published at :Okada Journal of Legal Sociology& Diplomacy
This paper examines child and human trafficking in Nigeria. The study observes that human trafficking has taken an alarming dimension in Nigeria such that it has become a big illegal criminal business. The paper reviews the conceptual definition of human trafficking with emphasis on the particular nature of human trafficking in Nigeria, alongside the causes of human trafficking, trafficking routes, and the signs to identify possible traffickers as the study discusses the implications of human trafficking in the effort to entrench human rights in society. The paper further examined the legal and institutional frameworks for fighting crime associated with human trafficking by suggesting some of the ways state security can prevent and combat human trafficking in Nigeria.
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Climate Change Mitigation: an Assessment of Global Legal Responses: So Far So Good?

Author(s): ADEKUNBI IMOSEMI1: NZERIBE ABANGWU 1 THEO NWANO2. (2013)
This paper examines global climate change and the level of actual and potential responses by international and Regional legal bodies. Important questions about legal achievements on looming global climate crises will be broadly discussed. What is the possibility of these legal bodies and institutions to deal efficiently with these crises? What are the effects of the crises caused by climate change on legal institutions? The capacity and ability of the various existing agreements and laws to manage climate, change. These are international agreements such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto protocol, and the 2012 Doha Post Kyoto Agreement, European Union and African Union treaties and negotiations on climate change. This inquiry will also look at the roles of changing scientific and economic understanding on evolving legal responses. The necessity or otherwise of a binding agreements on nations will also be discussed. Can existing legal and political institutions deal with a problem as complex, long-term and uncertain as climate change? It is recommended that United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is to come up with legally binding agreements on countries rather than treaties. Bold visionary action and legislation from law making bodies, parliaments, congress and National Assemblies of different countries that will curb carbon emissions and make polluters pay for global warming on gases they produce, will mobilize billions of dollars for investment and help address the global energy, economic and global crises since the world has no more time to lose.
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Cloud Computing: a Tool for Industrial and Educational Service Delivery. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics

Author(s): OSAGIE, S.U.M., AKHIDENO, I.O. AND OSAGIE, A.J. (2014)
Cloud computing has utilized the coherent principles of internet connectivity features and infrastructure in bridging the divided world of resources and applications. It has also broken the barriers faced in the traditional system of computing where infrastructures, resources and applications work on a standalone machine which are subjected to manipulations. The advent of cloud has made it possible for information/data to be accepted, manipulated and produced in real time for effective use without prior knowledge of the end users. Therefore, this paper reviews its concept, model, usage and application. It goes beyond a review to unveil the architectural view of cloud system by way of placing more emphasis on the intermediate end of the architecture, often not discussed in literature.
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Cloud Computing: a Tool for Industrial and Educational Service Delivery

Author(s): OSAGIE, S. U. M., AKHIDENO, I. O. AND OSAGIE, A. J. (2014)
Published at :NAMP JOURNAL (NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS
Abstract Cloud computing has utilized the coherent principles of internet connectivity features and infrastructure in bridging the divided world of resources and applications. It has also broken the barriers faced in the traditional system of computing where infrastructures, resources and applications work on a standalone machine which are subjected to manipulations. The advent of cloud has made it possible for information/data to be accepted, manipulated and produced in real time for effective use without prior knowledge of the end users. Therefore, this paper reviews its concept, model, usage and application. It goes beyond a review to unveil the architectural view of cloud system by way of placing more emphasis on the intermediate end of the architecture, often not discussed in literature.
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Commercialisation of Research Outputs and Cultural Lag Theory

Author(s): AGBONKPOLO U. M. FACULTY OF ARTS AND EDUCATION BENSON IDAHOSA UNIVERSITY, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA. (2006)
Published at :JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN EDUCATION VOL 3 NO 1
Abstract This paper examines the effect of commercialization of research in the society within the context of a free market economy. The study employs inferential deductive approach, using as premises the epistemology of research, the tenets of free market system and the cultural lag theory. The study shows that the applied and action research outputs will outpace the pure or basic research outputs, which in turn will create disproportionate growth rates of the two major parts of culture - the material and non-material cultures. Consequently, maladjustment and inhibitive elements to the over-all development of the society will set in. In conclusion, the study recommends that the Government should assume the responsibility of funding pure or basic research with particular reference to cultural studies as social utility. Keywords: material culture, non-material culture. value-disorientation, cultural lag, and maladjustment
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Communicating Awareness Messages on Hiv/aids: the Nigerian Pentecostal Pastors’ Approach

Author(s): OBOH, G.E. & ADELEKE, A.D (2009)
Published at :Journal of Communication and Media Research, Department of Mass Communication, Delta State University, Vol.1 (1), pp.141-151, (ISSN: 2141-5277)
Millions of people have died of HIV/AIDS pandemic. Unfortunately, there is still no cure for HIV/AIDS inspite of the efforts that have been made by biomedical and medical researchers. Therefore,, both government and non-governmental organizations, including the mass media are daily providing information for citizens on how they can avoid coming in contact with HIV as well as educating those who already have the virus on how they could live happily and healthy despite their circumstance. Since the church is an agent of development, we decided to review the approach of the Pentecostal pastors in combating the wide spread of the disease. In our study, 300 questionnaires were administered on pastors in the three leading Pentecostal churches; 220 of the questionnaires were returned for analysis, upon which the findings and recommendations of this study were based. It was discovered that most Pentecostal pastors usually emphasize messages on the prevention of HIV as well as its effects on patients, much more than messages that tend to build hope into HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, we advise pastors to build hope into AIDS patients, and all the concerned groups in the campaign against HIV/AIDS should collaborate with the church in the campaign against the spread of HIV/AIDS.
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Communication Language in Y2k: Hieroglyphics or Words

Author(s): EZIRIM CHUKWUMA DANIEL (1950)
It is important to note that Scientific and Technological breakthrough have become part of Democratic achievements of the twenty cum twenty-first century. This paper entitled “Communication Language in Y2K: Hieroglyphics or Words?” is a critical perusal on the subject of information technology and the communication network in this millennium. The essential argument of the paper is: As we continue in this age of Computer Colonialism will there be a withering away of written language, as a medium of information and communication, for a scary alternative of signs, drawings, codes and symbols-Hieroglyphics. This paper’s rhetorical question will be: Do we prefer a new development of signs, symbols, codes and drawings, as replacements for the written language, as media in commercialization and information technology in the near future or do we imbibe them as a watershed development in Communication.
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Communication Technologies and Poverty Alleviation in Developing Countries

Author(s): AKHIDENO O. I AND OSAZUWA, A. W (2005)
Essentially, communication tries to eliminate layers of poverty, thus enabling more forms of information flow, providing users with significant information and confronting users with a major information resources economic challenge. Today, there is therefore a growing interest concerning communication, the use of communication facilities and how it can be used to create real life services, which might improve the economic and the economic awareness delivery processes in the urban and rural areas. There is also the recognition that communication will significantly alter the structure and the current life style of urban and rural dwellers and will contribute to the overall expansion and the market opportunities of the developing information countries like Nigeria and others around the world. Although, there is tremendous growth in communication technologies, such equipments are still too expensive; the cost of some is still dropping, affordable to government and few individuals, than ever before. This paper is intended to explore the usage of communication technologies, pointing out the advantages and their many capital cost demerits and its aid to poverty alleviation in developing countries
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Communication Technologies and Poverty Alleviation in Development Countries

Author(s): AKHIDENO, O.I. AND OSAZUWA, A.W. (2005)
Published at :BIU Journal of Social and Management Sciences
Essentially, communication tries to eliminate layers of poverty, thus enabling more forms of information flow, providing users with significant information and confronting users with a major information resources economic challenge. Today, there is therefore a growing interest concerning communication, the use of communication facilities and how it can be used to create real life services, which might improve the economic and the economic awareness delivery processes in the urban and rural areas. There is also the recognition that communication will significantly alter the structure and the current life style of urban and rural dwellers and will contribute to the overall expansion and the market opportunities of the developing information countries like Nigeria and others around the world. Although, there is tremendous growth in communication technologies, such equipments are still too expensive; the cost of some is still dropping, affordable to government and few individuals, than ever before. This paper is intended to explore the usage of communication technologies, pointing out the advantages and their many capital cost demerits and its aid to poverty alleviation in developing countries.
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Comparative Analysis of the Antiseptic Properties of Some Disinfectants on Bacteria and Fungi of Public Health Importance Isolated from Barbing Clippers

Author(s): OMORUYI, M.I IDEMUDIA, M. I (2011)
Published at :Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 1
The assessment of disinfectants and cleaning agents commonly used by barbers during barbering operations has always been crucial with reference to public health importance. This study focused on the evaluation of the antiseptic properties of commonly used disinfectants in public barbing salon with the aim of ascertaining their suitability for barbing operations. The study revealed Malassezia and Trichophyton species as consistent fungi species while Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus species were common bacteria consistently isolated from barbing clippers before and after the use of disinfectant (Jik, Izal, Dettol, Kerosene and Fuel). Malassezia and Trichophyton occurred respectively in 70.8% and 58.3% of samples, while Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus species occurred in 91.67%, 75% and 83.3% of samples respectively. Of all the used disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) showed more antiseptic properties on all isolates with a zone of inhibition of 12mm (Malassezia), 14mm (Trichophyton), 42mm (Staphylococcus), 40mm (Streptococcus) and 30mm (Bacillus) while Fuel and kerosene were least in antiseptic properties and showed zero zone of inhibition for all the isolates. The result therefore showed that Hydrogen peroxide is suitable for barbing operations and could be an alternative to high level disinfection.
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Comparative Asssessment of Degradation Potentials of Bacteria and Actinomycetes in Soil Contaminated with Motorcycle Spent Oil

Author(s): IDEMUDIA, M. I., OSULA AMALAOWA NOSAGIE AND ODIGIE OMOREDE (2014)
Published at :Asian Journal of Science and Technology
The degradation potentials of bacteria and actinomycetes of spent motorcycle lubricating oil were investigated using standard microbiological procedures. Ten composite soil samples were collected from ten different motorcycle mechanic workshops in Benin City. The mean heterotrophic count for bacteria and actinomycetes ranged from 68 x 104 cfu/g to 155 x 104 cfu/g and 43 x 104 cfu/g to 85 x 104 cfu/g respectively. The mean hydrocarbon degrading bacteria counted ranged from 47 x 104 cfu/g to 89 x 104 cfu/g, while that of actinomycetes ranged from 18 x 104 cfu/g to 46 x 104 cfu/g, indicating that the bacteria was greater numerically than the actinomycetes. The preliminary screening test carried out showed that the predominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria belonged to Micrococcus and Sporosarcina species while that of actinomycetes were Nocardia sp , Gordonia sp , Micromonospora sp and Rhodococcus sp. Biodegradation test conducted revealed a range of 2.5% to 6.6% degradation and 1.035% to 7.53% degradation of the spent lubricating oil in bacteria and actinomycetes respectively, indicating a higher degradation of the spent oil by the actinomycetes
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Comparative Studies on the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Ethanolic Extracts of Lemon Grass Leaves and Stems

Author(s): ADEGBEGI ADEMUYIWA JOSHUA, USUNOBUN USUNOMENA, ADEWUMI BOLORUNDURO LANRE OKUNGBOWA AMENZE AND O. ANYANWU GABRIEL (2012)
Published at :Asian Journal of Medical Sciences
The aim of this study is to examine the phytochemical screening, chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts of both the leaves and stems of Cymbopogon citratus. For proximate analysis, results for the leaves on the Moisture content, ash content, fat content, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate were: 13.50, 11.17, 10.00, 19.54, 17.50 and 28.29% while that of the stem were: 7.98, 14.29, 13.50, 12.5, 17.50 and 34.23%, respectively. Also, the extracts was screened against two gram-negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris, two gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and fungi strain Penicillium and mucor at three different concentrations [1:1, 1:2 and 1:3] using Disc diffusion method. For both the leaves and stem extracts, the phytochemical analysis revealed the present of tannins, flavonoid, phlobotannins and cardiac glycosides but absence of alkaloid and saponin.
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