547 Publications

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Direct Marketing Communications and Its Variants in a Digital Age: Challenges, Strategies and Prospects

Author(s): ADEDOYIN S. A. AND ENOBAKHAREJ. O. (2012)
Published at :Journal of the Department of Communication Arts
This paper pontificates on direct marketing communications in the face of changes and new innovations in the marketing communications landscape. The direct marketing communication variants were identified and the potential challenges inimical to harnessing the gains of direct marketing communications highlighted. From the review of relevant literature and empirical studies it is our firm conviction and submission that marketers, organisations and advertising practitioners can successfully communicate with their target audiences and create competitive advantage by leveraging the vast possibilities through direct marketing communications platforms coupled with the increasing ICT breakthroughs. At the macro level public policy makers have a huge responsibility of ensuring that relevant legislations and appropriate monitoring and control are in place to ensure that marketers excesses and all other unethical practices are nipped in the bud. The National Communications Commission (NCC), The Advertising Practitioner’s Council of Nigeria (APCON), The Consumer Rights Protection Council and other regulatory agencies all have their varied roles to play as strong institutions and appropriate policy interventions of government are indispensable.
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Dispute Settlement Mechanisms of the World Trade Organisation: Impacts and Challenges on Developing Members, Kogi State University Bi-annual Journal of Public Law, Issn: 2141-4300, Vol.3 No. 2 Pp 1-15.

Author(s): IDEHEN,O. STELLA (2010)
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) came about as a result of the serious limitations which beleaguered its predecessor, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the WTO has not formally displaced GATT as the only international body overseeing international trade all over the world and has taken over the functions of GATT. The establishment of the WTO puts international trading on a firm constitutional footing by endowing it as a fully-fledged international organization with international legal personality. International trades between Nations are now increasingly conducted under rules and agreements which are negotiated at WTO. Prior to the establishment of the WTO, States engaged in international trade with a mercantilist system which allowed for a permissive international trade framework. This permissive regime has now been supplanted by the WTO which provides an executive, legislative and enforcement apparatus in the form of the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB). The DSB plays a vital role in regulating international trade policies and practices of Nation States as well as ensuring that member states of the WTO with the aim of finding out its impact on developing countries and proffer suggestions that will aid greater participation in the DSB.
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Domestic Violence Against Children in Nigeria; Any Hope for the Future

Author(s): OBASOHAN J.O (MRS) (2013)
Published at :BIU LAW JOURNAL AND PUBLICATIONS
This paper examines domestic violence, its prevalence in Nigeria in relation to the rights of the Nigerian child. The paper examines some relevant laws and statutes. The paper discusses reported incidents of domestic violence in the country and finds the different forms of abuses that children suffer in homes and immediate surroundings. The paper discusses how these abuses could have devastating effects on the peace and development of the society and advises on how to intensify effort in educating the public on the psychological implications of domestic violence and the need to counsel the victims of this phenomenon with a view to integrating them into the mainstream values of the society. However, the paper also suggests stiffer sanctions for the convicts of domestic violence as deterrent to discourage the perpetration of the crime of domestic violence.
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Dr. Elone J. Nwabuzor (2005), “elites and the Study of Elites: a Short Critique,” Knowledge Review: a Multidisciplinary Journal, Vol. 11, No. 7, (november), Pp. 79-86.

Author(s): ELONE J. NWABUZOR (2005)
The study of elites in all political societies has constituted one of the perennial problems of political sociology. This paper looks in some critical details at the classical works on elites as well as their more recent critics. It identifies crucial areas of methodological and empirical difficulties in the more recent studies of elites in society. However important comparative findings are identified, while noting the areas of more useful further research needed in order to attempt in filling the wide gaps in our knowledge of elite-mass relationships as well as the nature and scope of elite autonomy and policy impact.
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Dr. Elone J. Nwabuzor (2007), “the Nature and Forms of Social Explanation”, Knowledge Review: a Multidisciplinary Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, Pp. 10-16..

Author(s): ELONE J. NWABUZOR (2007)
The enterprise of explanation has often been mistakenly limited to the provision of causal analysis of events. Because of this mistaken limitation, some scholars have often doubted the ability of social science to explain. This paper is aimed at analyzing the nature and forms of explanation in social science. It identifies the seven forms of explanation in behavioural science and establishes their utility in the understanding of social phenomena. It examines the requirements and functions of each type of explanation. It further analyses the controversial relationship between explanation and prediction. It concludes with a cautionary note about the need for social explanation to include an awareness of the social content of the events.
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Dynamics of Inflation and Unemployment in a Vector Error Correction Model

Author(s): DAVID UMORU & M. A. ANYIWE (2013)
Published at :Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online) Vol.3, No.3
We examined the dynamics of inflation and unemployment in Nigeria using the vector error correction methodology over a period of twenty seven years. The study finds evidence of stagflation in the Nigerian economy over the period of study. In fact, the Nigerian economy is managing a shocking rate of inflation together with a severe recession as the unemployment rate has risen astronomically. Consequently, the Nigerian economy is at a cross road. Based on these findings, it is recommended that the CBN maintains a stance of gradual reduction of the benchmark inflation rate to a single digit as the excessive contraction of the monetary policy rate seems to have become counterproductive in recent times. Single digit inflation rate can be achieved if the CBN could increase GDP growth above money supply and increase lending to the real sector of the economy.
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E-voting System: a Paradigm to Free and Fair Electoral System

Author(s): OLAYINKA AKINOLA S. AND OLAYINKA TOSIN C. (2013)
Published at :International Journal of Social Science and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, Number 3, 2013
The need for viable and credible election has become an essential requirement, if most Africa nations will still continue to exist as indivisible sovereign nations and sustain their nascent democracy. In order to achieve this, electronic voting (e-voting) system becomes inevitable because traditional methods of voting used for previous elections were found to be characterized with various degrees of irregularities and lack sufficient credibility required for a democratic system. In this research work, the e-voting system proposed here was found to address some basic problems that characterized the traditional method of voting like ballot box snatching, multiple voting, result falsification, insufficient voting materials etc.
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E. J. Nwabuzor and Tunde Agara (2006), “impact of Globalization on Africelitesan Conflicts and Development”, Benin Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 14, No. 1, (july). Pp.119-130.

Author(s): E. J. NWABUZOR AND TUNDE AGARA (2006)
African anti-state conflicts of the East-West Cold War periodare different from intastate communal conflicts at present raging as a result of North-Sdevselopment. outh Cold War that is prosecuted through the regime of Bretton Woods institutions. The North-inspired globalization programs of Structural Adjustment, free trade, privatization and deregulation have brought with them mounting mass poverty, underdevelopment and delegitimization of most African regimes. The direct consequences have been intercommunal violent conflicts which are further blocking African development.. To escape from this vicious circle, Africa must force itself to look inward, and strive to carefully extricate itself from the most noxious policies currently being propagated by the Bretton Woods regime of globalization.
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Ecological Effects of Urban Wastewater on the Clariid Fish Population of Ogba River in Benin City, Nigeria. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences Research, Vol. 1: 200-219

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. (2003)
This investigation examined the ecological effects of urban water on the Clariid fishes of Ogba River in Benin City. 3 Stations: 1 (Control) upstream, 2 (Waste water discharge point) and 3 downstream were established on the stretch of the river investigated. Out of the 320 fishes sampled, 72Clariids made up of five (5) species (Clarias macromystax, Clarias anguiliaris, Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis and Heterobranchus longifillis) were investigated. 17 occurred in Station , non in Station 2 and 55 in Station 3. Of these, Clariids, C. macromystax was dominant. The overall abundance of the fishes among the stations, like the water quality parameters (except temperature) were significantly different (P<0.05). The preponderance of Chironomid larvae (known indicators of organic pollution) in the diet of the fishes suggested that the fishes were under organic pollution stress. The improved water quality and fish abundance downstream (Station 3) of the waste discharge point revealed the non-residual nature of the pollution. The negative condition factor upstream (before waste discharge point) indicated presence of other stress factors in the river. This study also showed the ability of clariid fishes to tolerate the harsh different conditions judging from the presence of all identified species in both upstream and downstream parts of the river.
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Ecotoxicological Studies: Heavy Metals Contaminating Water and Fishes from Ibiekuma Stream, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries (njf), Vol. 7 (1 and 2): 81 – 90

Author(s): ERHABOR, C. U. AND OBASOHAN, E. E. (2010)
This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals in water and two freshwater fishes (Chrysicththys nigrodigitatus and Parachanna obscura) from Ibiekuma Stream, Ekpoma, Nigeria. The metals distribution in the tissues of the fishes was also examined. Collection of samples was carried out at three selected sample stations along the stretch of the stream, while samples treatments and analyses were according to standard methods. Samples metal levels detected were statistically analyzed using ANOVA of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 6.5. windows application to detect any significant differences. The results showed that metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) mean levels in water were different along the stretch of the stream, but were generally lower than the toxicological threshold limits recommended for the various metals in drinking water. However, in fish /fish tissues, the results showed that the levels of Fe, Cr and Mn exceeded the recommended maximum limits in food fish. Consequently, the water of the stream is considered suitable for drinking and other domestic uses, but the fishes of the stream, based on the elevated levels of Fe, Cr, and Mn could not be recommended for consumption. Close monitoring of pollution stress especially of heavy metals in the stream is strongly recommended in order to avert possible induced health hazards from the consumption of the fishes of the stream.
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Ecumenism in Nigeria: Imperatives, Problems, and Prospects

Author(s): DR UMEJESI INNOCENT OGONNA (2008)
This Article discuses the imperatives of Ecumenism in Nigeria, the expected problems and the prospects for Christian-Christian understanding in Nigeria. The need for Christian-Christian understanding is urgent in view of the challenges facing Christian and Christianity in Nigeria.
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Edible Fractions and Oleochemical Raw Material from Palm Oil

Author(s): FRED O.J. OBOH (2007)
Published at :Nigerian Journal of Palms and Oilseeds
Nigerian Journal of Palms and Oilseeds 2007 16: 59-68. Abstract Palm oil has been separated by a cold acetone process into four fractions, typical of a commercial double stage fractionation process: - a hard (stearin) fraction, a mid- (semisolid) fraction, and two liquid fractions: an olein and a superolein. The fractions differed in their physico-chemical characteristics and composition, both from each other, and from the unfractionated oil. Fractionation gave a high yield of liquid (71.0%). Yields of stearin and mid-fraction were 21.0 and 8.0% respectively. Compared with unfractionated oil, fractionation concentrated the saturated fatty acid, palmitic (16:0) in the stearin fraction, while the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids were concentrated in the mid, and liquid fractions. ?-carotene was concentrated in the superolein, while the mid-fraction had a higher concentration of tocopherol than the unfractionated oil. The nutritional and functional effects of the fractionation of palm oil, as well as the possibility for the use of the stearin fraction as oleochemical raw material are discussed.
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Education and Human Resource Development Strategies and Procedures for Developing Countries

Author(s): JOHNSON AGBONAVBARE OSAIGBOVO, (PH. D) (2012)
The quality of employees depends on how efficiently they can use the capital, material, machines and technology. Human resources denotes the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitude of organization’s workforce. The qualities of human resources are developed by education, training and research. It is therefore, more imperative that for national development in an effective and efficient service delivery method, the acquired skills, knowledge and attitudes of the personnel must be constantly reviewed for improvement and increase productivity. Sequel to this, the Yar’Adua-Goodluck administration in Nigeria designed a seven-point agenda on key areas that have over the years, constituted Nigeria’s socio-economic malaise. The administration’s critical areas in the seven-point agenda to achieve Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020 concern energy production, transmission and distribution; agricultural development for large scale production; wealth creation; improved transportation system; land law reforms; improved security system; and poverty eradication through education. This paper therefore examines two crucial areas that stand out of the seven-point agenda as genesis for others, that is, education and human resources development, and agricultural development. Appropriate recommendations were made to ameliorate development phenomenon in developing countries globally.
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Education for All: Implications for Boy-child Education in Nigeria

Author(s): JOHNSON AGBONAVBARE OSAIGBOVO, (PH. D) (2014)
Education is the key and in this era no one can do without it irrespective of one’s biological affiliation. The federal government launched boy-child education to tackle the high rate of male dropout from schools in the southeast and other parts of the country. This programme is aimed at ensuring the enrolment of about 9.5 million pupils in schools by 2020. It is estimated that about 10 million Nigerian children of primary school age are out of school because of some challenges. These include: lack of political commitment, poor planning and management as well as blind curriculum. Other palpable reasons are child labour, poverty and lack of sponsorship, quest for wealth, bereavement, truancy, broken homes, engagement of children as house helps, all these are the clog in the wheel of boy-child education in Nigeria. Sequel to this, Nigeria embarked on Universal Basic Education in a bid to meet the millennium development goal of education for all 2015- target, including the boy-child education. Hence, this paper focuses on education for all and its implications for boy- child education in Nigeria. It was concluded that boy-child education should be encouraged at all levels of Nigerian educational system. The paper recommended that the government should promulgate laws making boy-child education compulsory in Nigeria.
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Education for All: Implications for Boy-child Education in Nigeria

Author(s): HEPHZIBAH – AWULOR, B. N. (2014)
Education is the key and in this era no one can do without it irrespective of one’s biological affiliation. The federal government launched boy-child education to tackle the high rate of male dropout from schools in the southeast and other parts of the country. This programme is aimed at ensuring the enrolment of about 9.5 million pupils in schools by 2020. It is estimated that about 10 mission Nigerian children of primary school age are out of school because of some challenges. These include: lack of political commitment, poor planning and management as well as blind curriculum. Other palpable reason are child labour, poverty and lack of sponsorship, quest for wealth, bereavement, truancy, broken homes, engagement of children as house helps, all these are the clog in the wheel of boy- child education in Nigeria. Sequel to this, Nigeria embarked on Universal Basic Education in a bid to meet the millennium development goal of education for all 2015 – target, including the boy-child education. Hence, this paper focuses on education for all the its implications for boy-child education in Nigeria. It was concluded that boy-child education should be encouraged at all levels of Nigerian educational system. The paper recommended that the government should promulgate laws making boy-child education compulsory in Nigeria.
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Educational Development and Production of Accountants in Nigeria: Challenges and Way Forward

Author(s): AKHIDIME, AUGUSTINE, EHIJEAGBON (2013)
This paper, through the review of relevant literature, examined the factors that had hindered the educational development and production of sufficient numbers of desirable quality of professional and academic accountants in Nigeria from meeting the demands of the growing Nigerian economy. Accordingly, the efforts of the two Nigerian professional accounting regulatory bodies and tertiary educational institutions that share the responsibility for the development and production of accountants in Nigeria were examined. The inhibitive factors were identified to include the late take- the inherent limitations in off of accounting education and
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Educational Inequalities and Economic Development of Women in South-south Nigeria

Author(s): • ABIKWI I MARGARET. & . ONYEMAH,N LIZZY (2014)
Published at :WORLD EDUCATORS FORUM (AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL), Volume 4 No.1
Abstract The study investigated Educational Inequalities and Economic development of women in South-south Nigeria. Unlike most parts of the developed world where instance of discriminatory disposition towards women are perverted due to effects of globalization and course, attainment of most of the millennium Development Goals (MDG”S) targets, Nigeria is yet to put in place relevant gender mainstreaming policy. 120 respondents from five Federal universities constituted the sample for the study. Three research questions were structured to guide the study; Data were collected with the aid of questionnaires, which were analyzed using Mean and Standard Deviation (SD). Analysis of data revealed unequal access to educational opportunities as the bedrock of ignorance and powerlessness associated with women’s social disempowerment in the country. In necessary consequences of a well coordinated gender mainstreaming strategy. The researcher’s therefore, recommended that, to empower women in South-South Nigeria, educational opportunities should be enhanced. Skills, attainment and capabilities should henceforth take primary over detestable gender stereotypes in categorizing and rewarding people in the country. The researchers concluded that the eradication of poverty, ignorance, and societal insecurity in the society require that women and men be given the same opportunities in educational and socio-economics field, as well equal access to and control, over the resource of the society. Based on this the society would become a more livable entity for males and females to progressively coexist.
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Educational Research and Innovation for Sustainable National Development in Nigeria

Author(s): JOHNSON AGBONAVBARE OSAIGBOVO, (PH. D) (2014)
This paper examines the implications of educational research and innovation for sustainable national development in Nigeria. Education, research and innovation, professionally referred to as “Triangle of Knowledge”, and integrated to build a road map leading to sustainable development for future generations. On the other hand, research and development is discovering the new knowledge about products, process and services, and then applying the knowledge to create a new and improved products, process and services that fill individual and cooperate needs, which will in turn elicit better conditions of living and promote sustainable national development. Educational research and innovation are important instruments in the development of a nation like Nigeria. Development in all areas of life demands innovation while innovation in turn depends on creation and utilization of new knowledge through scientific research. Sustainable national development should therefore be people – focused, people – based and people – driven respectively.
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Effect of Cassava Effluent on Okada Natural Denizens

Author(s): J. E. EHIAGBONARE, S. A. ENABULELE, B.B. BABATUNDE AND R. Y. ADJARHORE (2009)
Published at :Scientific Research and Essay, 4(4): 310 – 313
Abstract A study was designed to investigate the effect of cassava effluent on Okada environment. Two sets of same five plant species were germinated and watered with cassava effluent for 10 days at alternate days. One part of the effluent had read palm oil in it from processing while a part of it had non. Significant results were obtained from the one without red palm oil. Only Chlomolaena odorata survived out of the five plant species. The survival was 5% in 100% effluent concentration, 20% survival in 75% effluent concentration, 35% survival in 50% effluent concentration. While the control had 100% survival. Results from the effluent with red palm oil was not significant. Bad odour was perceived for a mean distance of 90.3 m from the point of discharge of cassava effluent. This is an indication of air pollution. The interview with ethno inhabitants showed that goats, sheep, die when they drink cassava waste water. There was no negative effect in respect of cat, pig, fowl and Turkey. Soil analysis showed that fungi were obliterated. The benefit from mycorrhizal association which enhances plant growth was lost. The study concluded that cassava effluent had negative effect on the Okada environment. Enlightenment campaign, detoxifying cassava effluent in accordance with FEPA standard, appropriate method(s) of disposal of both solid and cassava waste water are recommended for safe and healthy Okada environment.
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Effective Service Delivery and Customer Satisfaction: the Tourism Industry Experience

Author(s): ADEDOYIN, SAMUEL A. AND IKEBUDU, DEBORAH C. (2011)
Published at :West African Social and Management Sciences Review (WASMSR)
This paper is a review on service delivery and customer satisfaction in the tourism industry. We elucidate that sustainable national development in Nigeria can be promoted via tourism, that tourism itself can be adequately marketed like other physical goods, ideas and services, also that performance in the tourism sub sector can be enhanced by excellent service delivery operations, an improved operating environment, greater political stability and security, and a compliance with the tourism development master plan framework. The continued image laundering and national re branding efforts and the political will to develop the sector are high lighted as imperative for greater tourist patronage, while further guided liberalization policies are recommended as stimulus to foreign direct investments in the sector. The public-private joint participation initiative for investments, a compliance with world class practices, natural habitat preservation and necessary capacity building are identified as indispensable in developing the sector and sustainable national development.
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Effective Service Delivery and Customer Satisfaction: the Tourism Industry Experience

Author(s): ADEDOYIN S. A. AND IKEBUDU D. (2011)
Published at :West African Social and Management Sciences Review
This paper is a review on service delivery and customer satisfaction in the tourism industry. We elucidate that sustainable national development in Nigeria can be promoted via tourism, that tourism itself can be adequately marketed like other physical goods, ideas and services, also that performance in the tourism sub sector can be enhanced by excellent service delivery operations, an improved operating environment, greater political stability and security, and a compliance with the tourism development master plan framework. The continued image laundering and national re branding efforts and the political will to develop the sector are high lighted as imperative for greater tourist patronage, while further guided liberalization policies are recommended as stimulus to foreign direct investments in the sector. The public-private joint participation initiative for investments, a compliance with world class practices, natural habitat preservation and necessary capacity building are identified as indispensable in developing the sector and sustainable national development.
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Effectiveness and Compliance of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (llins) on Malaria Parasitemia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

Author(s): WOGU, M.N., NDUKA, F.O. AND WOGU, M.D. (2013)
Published at :British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 3(4), 1233-1239
Aim: To determine the effectiveness and compliance of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) on malaria Parasitaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics. Study Design: Cross sectional study Place and Duration of Study: Rivers State, Nigeria, between April and September 2011. Methodology: Thick and thin blood films were made and stained using parasitological standard procedures to identify malaria parasites. Questionnaires were distributed to collect personal data of the pregnant women examined. Data gotten was analyzed with Chi-square test of Significance. Results: A total of 400 pregnant women were examined, 317(79%) used LLINs with 29((9.1%) positive for malaria parasites while 83(21%) did not use LLINs with 75(90.4%) positive for malaria parasites (P<0.05). Pregnant women in their first, second and third trimesters that used LLINs had prevalence rates of 5.3%, 12.2% and 11.5% respectively while those that did not use LLINs had prevalence rates of 89.1%, 94.1% and 90.9% respectively (P<0.05). Primigraviidae, secundigraviidae and multiparous women who used LLINs had prevalence rates of 10.3%, 8.7% and 5.9% while those who did not use LLINs had prevalence rates of 95.8%, 89.5% and 75% respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The usage of LLINs in reducing malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women was statistically significant (P <0.05) irrespective of parity and gestation period.
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Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina Leaf on the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Function Parameters of Normal Rats

Author(s): C.O. NWANGWU SPENCER, J. JOSIAH SUNDAY, USUNOBUN USUNOMENA, NWANGWU UDOKA, A. AKINOLA AKINTOLA, O. ISREAL EHIREMEN AND OMAGE KINGSLEY (2011)
Published at :Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences
Many plants with reported medicinal value have been demonstrated to exert a protective effect on the liver and some, with the ability of lowering the blood lipid level have also been elucidated. This study shows the effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Vernonia amygdalina on the plasma lipid profile as well as on the level of the liver biomarker in the plasma of normal rats. The animals were distributed into two sets of four groups with five animals in each group. Each set had a control group while the other three groups were administered different concentrations of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from V. amygdalina leaf. The control groups were administered normal saline and the other groups’ 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, twice daily for three weeks. The plasma Total Protein (TP), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Albumin (ALB) and Bilirubin (BIL) levels and plasma lipid profile of the rats were evaluated. The aqueous extract of the plant showed a significant increase in the plasmaconcentration of HDL-C with no significant difference in the plasma TC, LDL-C, VLDLC and TG levels. Thus, these results suggested that the ethanolic extract from the leaves of V. amygdalina had a hepatoprotective effect while hypolipidemic effect can be suggested for the aqueous extracts.
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Effects of Petroleum Products on African Snakehead, Parachanna Obscura and Associated Haematological Responses. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries (njf), Vol. 7 (1 and 2): 73 - 80

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. AND ORONSAYE, J. A. O. (2010)
This investigation examined changes in some haematological parameters ( Blood haemoglobin and neutrophil) in juveniles of some African Snakehead (Parachana obscura) exposed to 1.00, 2.00 4.00 and 8.00ml concentrations of some petroleum products (PMS, DPK and LBO). Blood haemoglobin and neutrophil levels showed significant increases during toxicity and recovery in de-chlorinated tap water. The changes in the fish blood haemoglobin during toxicity suggest responses to improve blood O2 carrying capacity following possible blood erythrocytes disintegration which arose from stress due to the petroleum products. The significant increases in neutrophil levels suggest gill tissue damage and the fish immunological defense responses against bacterial infection during toxicity. The changes during recovery reflect compensatory physiological mechanism for the survival of the fish.
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Effects of Ph and Storage Temperatures on Antibacterial Activity of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Ogi

Author(s): R. E. OHENHEN , J. O. ISIBOR , G. EMONFONMWAN AND S. A. ENABULELE (2015)
Published at :British Microbiology Research Journal
Aims: Lactic acid bacteria are important organisms recognized for their fermentative ability. They produce various compounds including bacteriocins which are proteinaceous antimicrobial compounds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lactic acid bacterial content of ogi, extract crude bacteriocin from the lactic acid bacterial isolate(s) and determine the effects of pH and storage temperature on the antimicrobial properties of the crude bacteriocin extract. Study Design: The study was designed to isolate and characterise lactic acid bacteria from ogi, thereafter extract crude bacteriocins from the isolates and then determine the antibacterial activities of the bacteriocins so extracted against some known indicator organisms. Place and Duration of Study: Ogi samples were purchased from vendors who hawk it around the Benson Idahosa University campus and the study was done at the Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria; between October 2012 and June 2013. Methodology: Preliminary isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria was done using standard microbiological methods after which the bacteriocins were extracted by propagating in 500ml MRS broth (pH 7.0 glucose 0.25% w/v) and incubated for 72 h at 30ºC under anaerobic conditions. Extract was obtain by centrifuging cultures at 10,000 rpm for 20 min. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined using agar well diffusion method. Indicator organisms utilized were; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The effects of pH and storage temperatures of the crude bacteriocin, on the antimicrobial properties were determined using standard methods. Results: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus jensenii were the lactic acid bacteria species isolated and identified from the Ogi samples. Lactobacillus plantarum had the highest zone of inhibition during the screening test for antibacterial activity and was used to produce the bacteriocins used for the subsequent tests. At pH 2, there was a high antimicrobial activity but at pH 10, there was no antimicrobial activity. Crude bacteriocin extract stored at -20ºC also showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Conclusion: This study has established that Ogi is a viable source of several lactobacilli which are capable of producing several antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins. It also established that bacteriocins recovered from Lactobacillus plantarum have a potent antimicrobial activity against a variety of both diarrhoeagenic and spoilage bacterial.
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