547 Publications

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Effects of Water Pollution on the African Freshwater Gaint Prawn Macrobrachium Macrobrachion of Ovia River in Edo State, Nigeria Nigerian Journal of Applied Sciences Vol. 32: 150 - 161 (issn 0795-1353)

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. AND OMATSULI, M. (2014)
This study examined the effects of pollution on the prawn : Macrobrachium macrobrachion in Ovia River. It examined the size frequency distribution, condition and growth pattern of the prawns, and the water quality parameters of the river at two stations (Ikoro and Ekehuan) between April and September, 2013. The results showed that the physic- chemical parameters of the river were within recommended limits for optimum growth of fish and drinking water purposes except Cd and Cr levels which exceeded the recommended limits. Prawns size frequency distribution showed that juvenile prawns preferred the pollution-free Ikoro to the pollution-laden Ekehuan, a situation that was attributed to adverse environmental conditions caused by pollution. The condition factor (K) analyses, which revealed poor condition (K=0.33) of the prawns at Ekehuan in comparison to prawns good condition (K=5.25) at Ikoro, further demonstrated the impact of pollution on the prawns. Consequently, close monitoring of pollution in Ovia River is recommended in order to avert possible hazards to the aquatic community and humans that depend on the river for drinking water.
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Egbulefu, C.c. & Tarsea-anshesha (2013). Communication a Pre-requisite for Agricultural Education Development.

Author(s): EGBULEFU, C.C. & TARSEA-ANSHESHA (2013)
Published at :Journal of Collaborative Research and Development (JRRD). Vol. 1, No.2, p.135-147.
There has been growing concern on the crucial role of communication in the development process, sparked perhaps by its importance to the entire existence of man, its forms of use, strategies to be employed for success to be achieved and also new facilities which have emerged and are still emerging in the communication terrain. The advent of phones, audio-visual equipment and the Internet have opened new vistas and also focused adept attention on the properties of information and in formation transfer culminating to what is referred to as communication, which is the transfer of information and messages from one point to another and between people where meaning can be shared and participation enhanced. Development communication specialists and scholars have tried to see how best communication can be used to fast- track development especially in third world nations including Nigeria. And since information and knowledge give power to the recipient, it becomes imperative that agriculturists too gain that strength. It is against this backdrop that the paper seeks to examine communication as sine qua non to agricultural development in Nigeria. The paper is divided into introduction, conceptual framework, and theoretical framework. The discourse looks at forms/patterns of communication, strategies to be employed, and principles of agricultural communication, agricultural communication barriers and conclusion /recommendations. The paper recommends that a combination of channels and strategies of communication can go a long way in diffusing innovations to farmers. Audience analysis and analysis of other factors like language, cultural norms and resistant traits inherent in man is crucial for change to take place. Finally, extension agents be provided with adequate funds and other resources timely to succeed in their responsibility of diffusing innovations to farmers so that development can be attained.
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Election Monitoring in Nigeria Using the Swift Count Methodology

Author(s): MIKE OKEMI (2013)
Published at :INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
Abstract This work examines the traditional system of monitoring elections in Nigeria and its attendant problem which called for a more acceptable and scientific approach to election monitoring so as to restore voters confidence in elections. This led to the introduction and adoption of a new system known as the parallel vote tabulation {PVT} The methodology employed is case study of the application of PVT in some countries and in Nigeria and content analysis, of primary and secondary materials. It was discovered that the new scientific method using the short message system is quicker and more effective in the process of monitoring elections. The use of statistics makes the margin of error between its result and those of the electoral body very insignificant and very similar, thus attesting to the accuracy and reliability of the new method. The new approach has revolutionized the process of election monitoring in Nigeria and brought it at par with international standard and practice. Its application in Nigeria has led to the building of integrity and given legitimacy to elections and its outcome. The objectives of employing the new method were met and because the margin of error between it figures and those on INEC is very minimal, its reports can be used for electoral cases in courts and tribunals. Observers were able to give accurate assessment in percentage rating, the process of accreditation, voting, counting and incidence and arrival of materials and officials during elections. The level of attack the observers suffered is an indication that many Nigerians are yet to come to terms with their activities and the roles they can play in influencing transformation of election process. On the other hand, they were also harassed because their presence at polling satiations posed a hindrance to rigging. Keywords- Election Monitoring, Parallel Vote Tabulation, Swift Count, Independent National Electoral Commission.
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Election Petitions Under the Electoral Act 2006: an Appraisal

Author(s): * JESUOROBO E. I. ESQ. ** LL.B. (HONS.)IFE., LL.M. JOS. B.L.. (2008)
An election has been defined as 'the process of selecting a person to occupy an office; usually a public office'. A petition has been defined as a formal written request presented to a court or other official body.2 An election petition can therefore be defined as a formal complaint that a person elected to occupy a public office has not been validly elected. The Court of Appeal in the case of Ojukwu v. Obasanjo" while describing election stated as follows: Election goes beyond merely voting as it is a process inclusive of delimitation of constituency,nomination,accreditation, voting itself counting, collation and return or declaration of result. "The Supreme Court appears to hold a similar view when it described election in the context in which it is used in Section 13 7( 1 )(b) of the 1999 Constitution to mean:The process of choosing by popular votes a candidate for a political office in a democratic system An election is one of the ways by which a society may organize itself for effective governance. It involves the surrender of the political right to govern of the electorate to an elected few whom the electorate expects to govern in accordance with their manifestos or proposals which form the basis of their choice. Where voting is free, it acts simultaneously as a system for making certain decisions regarding the power relations in a society and as a method for seeking political obedience with a minimum of sacrifice of the individual's freedom’. Where elections are fair, it is a means of governance through the medium of the ballot box rather than through the barrel of the gun.of government. " 4
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Electrical Characterization of Vacuum Thermally Deposited Aluminium Thin Film

Author(s): J. A. AMUSAN, A. S. OLAYINKA, Y. P. NWAMBO, S. O. ALAYANDE, O. D. OJUH, C. C. JAMES, A. IBIYEMI, O. R. ADETUNJI, A. A. FAGBULU AND W. B. AYINDE. (2010)
Published at :Research Journal of Applied Sciences 5(2), 96-100, 2010
Vacuum thermal evaporation technique is employed in depositing thin film of Aluminium on the microscopic glass substrate using Edward 090-10-895B Auto 306 Vacuum Coating System. The deposition is uniform precisely between 161?m and 294?m of total scan length 350?m. This range is achieved through Dektak 150 Surface Stylus Profiler. The uniform deposition within this range may be attributed to strong adhesion between Aluminium film and microscopic glass substrate, proper directness of film from the source to the target in the vacuum chamber of Evaporator and pure, uncontaminated film deposition at the region. The highest Roughness, Rp of 2700A0 (Angstrom) is obtained between 133?m and 140?m of the total scan length, 350?m. The lowest roughness, Rv of -250A0 which exists just at the edge of the substrate, is obtained. We adopt Four-point probe collinear technique to obtain the film resistivity using Keithley, 4200 model Semiconductor Characterization System (SCS). The resistivity and conductivity values are -4.6E-06 ?cm and -2.17391 x 105 ?-1cm-1 respectively. The conductivity value of Aluminium (Al ) film as dopant can enhance the performance of the doped material and thus improve the conversion efficiency and other electrical properties of some materials used in fabricating solar cell.
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Electronic and Structural Properties of Zincblende Bxin1?xn

Author(s): OJUH, O. D., OMEHE, N. N. AND IDIODI, J. O. A. (2012)
Published at :Journal of Mathematical Physics Association of Nigeria. Vol.21:413- 420.htt://www.nampjournals.org.
We present first-principles calculations of the Structural and electronic properties of zinc blende for different concentrations x of ternary alloy BxIn1-xN. The computational method is based on the pseudopotential method as implemented in the Abinit code. The exchange and correlation energy is described in the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have investigated the effect of composition on the lattice parameters, bulk modulus and band gap of the zinc blende BN, InN. The results obtained are in a good agreement with experimental and theoretical values concerning the variation of the gaps and crossover from direct to indirect band gap and the bowing parameter. Keywords: Lattice parameter, bulk modulus, band gap, bowing parameter and Abinit code.
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Electronic Bill of Lading: the Challenges of Developing Countries

Author(s): *T.C. NWANO AND **O.S. BAIYEIWUNMI (2002)
Bill of lading has played an important role in the heart of international trade over the centuries as regards carriage of goods by sea. It’s three-fold functions of receipt for the goods shipped, evidence of contract of carriage and as a document of title cannot be overemphasized; this paper is set out in the main to explore the acceptance of paperless bills of lading and analyzing the durability or otherwise of ensuring an electronic bill of lading, then further suggesting mode, on how this paperless commerce could be enhanced and enabling the electronic bill of lading to function anywhere, even in the so called developing countries.
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Elone J. Nwabuzor (2004), “postmaterialist Work and Family Values: Comparing Africa and East Asia,” African Journal of Political Science, (accepted for Publication & in Galley-proof) Vol. 9, No. 2, (december), Pp. 48-72.

Author(s): ELONE J. NWABUZOR (2004)
Professor Inglehart has created two categorical designations of “materialist” and “postmaterialist” to characterize the value positions of countries in his comparative study of value change in industrialized nations. He points out that in contrast to the industrial materialist socio-economic environment, the postmaterialist value world is a product of the affluence that characterizes postindustrial societies. In this exploratory analysis comparing three underdeveloped African countries (i.e. Nigeria, Uganda and Zimbabwe)and two East Asian countries (postindustrial Japan and underdeveloped Bangladesh), the validity of the postmaterialist thesis is challenged by examining 27 work value and family value items. The results indicate that, contrary to the postmaterialist theoretical predictions, the 2000 World Values Survey data show postindustrial Japan to be strikingly similar to the sample of poor African and East Asian underdeveloped countries, on very many critical work value and family value items. This has raised important questions about the validity of the postmaterialist thesis as regards non-Western societies.
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Elone J. Nwabuzor and Tunde Agara (2005), “phenomenology: an Alternative to Quantitative Positivist Research Method”, the Benue Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, (september/december), Pp. 72-100.

Author(s): ELONE J. NWABUZOR (2005)
Phenomenology is presented as an alternative to the dominant Positivist (scientific) methodology for the study of social matter. This because the object of study Man, is not only creative but also a mirror in himself such that his state of consciousness is what creates the nature of his interactions, situations, organizations and entire social world. The paper explains the elements of phenomenology as a research approach and contrasts it with the positivist epistemology. It shows how phenomenology can be used in research while answering to some of the common criticisms of the method. Insisting that the problem should determine the research method, it concludes that while positivist and phenomenological research differ substantially, they could be complementary, if used at different stages of the same research.
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Elone J. O. Nwabuzor (1994), "social Engineering and Nation Building in Africa," Journal of Behavioral and Social Sciences, [japan], Vol. 1994, No.3, Pp. 131-156

Author(s): ELONE J. O. NWABUZOR (1994)
All societies exhibit plurality but to varying degrees, depending on the extent of diversity of their component parts. Pluralism is the strategy and attendant philosophy for coping with and organizing this endemic heterogeneity within all societies. Individual pluralism and communal pluralism refer respectively to the strategy for coping with individual and communal diversities. This paper presents information on differences and similarities on several dimensions of politically relevant values held by major ethnic groups in Cameroun, in order to demonstrate the usefulness of scientific information to social engineering efforts.The paper further presents election and party membership data show how the recent Nigerian experiment of constitutionally requiring two new political parties is succeeding in compelling ethnic and religious groups to build linkages across major lines of cleavages which multi-partyism notoriously accentuated in past Republics
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Elone J. O. Nwabuzor (1996), “culture and Democracy,” Benin Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 5, Nos. 1 & 2, (november), Pp. 45-56.

Author(s): ELONE J. O. NWABUZOR (1996)
This article attempts to demonstrate that there are two levels of homology between general culture as objectified in society, and democracy as a way of life in the objectified political world. One level of homology is in respect of the constituent elements, and the other is in the form of integration. Like general culture, democracy is also a complex of a specifiable set of values which function to organize the attitudes, norms, rules, institutions, artifacts and symbols of a political community. Like general culture also, the political culture of democracy exhibits four remarkable forms of integration: thematic, connective, logical and regulative. These forms of integration lend coherence to democracy as a distinctive way of life with a pattern of values often referred to as the tenets of Democracy. This article goes on to demonstrate that there is a pattern which ties together elements of the democratic creed which include: freedom, equality, popular participation, competition, representation, self determination, trust tolerance, checks-and-balances, accountability, and the rule of law. Moreover, each of these values has behavioural consequences which therefore become empirically referent.
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Elone J. O. Nwabuzor (1999), “trends in Voting Behaviour of Nigerian Youth,” Nigerian Journal of Politics and Public Policy (nippp), Vol. 3, Nos. 1 & 2, (december), Pp. 1-20.

Author(s): ELONE J. O. NWABUZOR (1999)
This article is a result of one of the very nationwide post-election surveys of Nigerian voters. It compares the attitudes to the 1991 State Elections of the young voters with those of the older generation voters. It identifies three political generations in the Nigerian electorate and evaluates its findings against the background of findings in other societies regarding the effect of age on voting behavior. It proceeds to argue that given the context of the Third Republican party system, Nigerian youths should be better viewed as a categoric group rather than a self-conscious social group in its electoral behavior. In spite of the predominantly military environment during their early socialization, Nigerian youths showed a strong support for the then two-party system, and for the open-secret balloting system. However, in spire of their higher levels of education, Nigerian youths when compared with the older generation, showed a lower level of party attachment, registered to vote in a smaller proportion, and consequently abstained more from voting. They also showed a lower level of knowledge of some basic voting information such as the names of candidates for the State Elections.
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Elone J.o. Nwabuzor (2005), “corruption and Democracy: the Nigerian Case,” Ascon Journal of Management, Vol. 26, Nos 1 & 2, (april/october), Pp.1-14.

Author(s): ELONE J.O. NWABUZOR (2005)
This paper analyses the nature of corruption not so much as a moral defect as it is the result of the structural deformity of the Nigerian post-colonial rentier state built on private accumulation. It broadly classifies corruption into materialistic and non-materialistic categories; placing political corruption and bureaucratic corruption under the materialistic category.It uses the structural analysis to explain the historical genesis and development of corruption during the pre-self government, through the post-independence civilian and military eras. Having shown how the long period of military kleptocracy escalated the phenomenon of corruption, it demonstrates the many consequences of corruption principally in the weakening of important national institutions. This paper further deploys comparative cross-national datato demonstrate the impressive correlation between permissiveness towards corruption, support for democracy, and the prosperity of nations. Lastly and most importantly, the paperin conclusion, proffers long-term solutions to the serious national problem of corruption
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Empirical Review of Audit Tenure and Auditor’s Independence in the Nigerian Banks

Author(s): BEAUTY EKIOMADO EGUASA (2013)
This study focused on the influence of audit tenure on auditor’s independence in the Nigerian banking sector. Survey research design was adopted. Data was gathered through questionnaire. Bank staff and investors were the major respondents. The study adopted the Z-test statistical technique to analyse the relevant data. The result revealed that audit tenure ship (long term) does not influence audit independence in the Nigerian banking sector and that investors attitude to invest in the banking sector are not influenced by the timeframe (tenure) of the auditors. Premised on the above, the study recommended that the professional accounting bodies should constantly enlighten their members on the essence of audit independence. Central Bank of Nigeria pronouncement on the issue of tenure ship should be made available to the various stakeholders in the banking sector and the issue of audit tenure ship and independence should be adequately disclosed as part of BOFIA requirements.
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Empirical Review of Audit Tenure and Auditor’s Independence in the Nigerian Banks

Author(s): OBARETIN, O. IZEDONMI, F.I. & IYAMU, B.E. (2013)
This study focused on the influence of audit tenure on auditor’s independence in the Nigerian banking sector. Survey research design was adopted. Data was gathered through questionnaire. Bank staff and investors were the major respondents. The study adopted the Z-test statistical technique to analyse the relevant data. The result revealed that audit tenure ship (long term) does not influence audit independence in the Nigerian banking sector and that investors attitude to invest in the banking sector are not influenced by the timeframe (tenure) of the auditors. Premised on the above, the study recommended that the professional accounting bodies should constantly enlighten their members on the essence of audit independence. Central Bank of Nigeria pronouncement on the issue of tenure ship should be made available to the various stakeholders in the banking sector and the issue of audit tenure ship and independence should be adequately disclosed as part of BOFIA requirements.
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Empirical Study of Prediction Accuracy of Basic Outdoor Propagation Models with Field Data of Campus Wlan

Author(s): JOSEPH ISABONA (2014)
Published at :International Journal of Information Science and Intelligent System, 3(1): 8-22, 2014
Radio signal propagation is the process whereby the signal is conveyed between the transmitter and receiver, and its consideration can have a profound influence on wireless communication systems design and performance. The signal frequency and the environment determine which propagation mechanisms are dominant. Although these mechanisms generally appear to involve distinct physical processes, it is found in some cases that what is different is not the processes, but the model used to represent it. To ensure an acceptable level quality of service for users of a wireless communication networks, network planners rely on signal propagation pathloss models in planning and optimizing the wireless network systems. Hence, the coverage reliability of a wireless network design depends on the accuracy of the propagation model. This research paper is targeted at determining the achievable prediction accuracy of some key propagation models with field propagation data in Campus WLAN. This is to enable us obtain the most suitable pathloss prediction model from among the key existing ones for WLAN in the study area. From the results, CCIR has lowest pathloss prediction accuracy of 73.2% with measured data and Hata model has the highest prediction accuracy of 91% with measured data. Therefore, the model with highest pathloss prediction accuracy, which is Hata, is recommended effective planning of outdoor campus WLAN coverage in the study area.
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Employment and Economic Growth in Nigeria: a Bounds Specification

Author(s): DAVID UMORU, PHD (2013)
Published at :Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online) Vol.4, No.5
The paper examines empirically, whether or not employment impact significantly and positively on GDP growth in Nigeria over the sample period of thirty-eight years. The newly developed bounds testing approach to co-integration was adopted in the study. The results obtained reveal that both the short-run and long-run growth effects of employment in Nigeria are significant and positive. In particular, the results show that for a one-percentage point increase in employment, 0.568 percent real GDP growth rate is induced in the long-run. Having ascertained the significance of employment in positively influencing economic growth in Nigeria, the study thus recommends a set of policies to the Nigerian government with a view to enhancing employment and fostering economic growth in Nigeria.
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Enhanced Spectral Utilization of 3g Wcdma-based Fdd Mode in the Uplink Transmission

Author(s): JOSEPH ISABONA, MOSES EKPENYONG AND SAMMUEL AZI (2011)
Published at :Modern Applied Science Vol. 5, No. 1; February 2011
The economic value on network capacity has made it a major determinant in the design of any generation of mobile technologies. For any multi-user cellular system, the measure of its economic usefulness is the peak load that can be supported within a given quality and service (QoS) availability. In this paper, we improve upon the existing Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) user capacity expressions in single and multi cell environments for the uplink, by integrating new parameters that affect the system. Specifically, we study and report the effect of multi-user detection and adaptive antenna gain on WCDMA users’ capacity in the presence of loading, voice activity, sectorization, power control factor and bandwidth efficiency.
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Enhancing Globally the Enrolment of Women into Science-based Courses in the University

Author(s): OMOREGIE, N.O. (2008)
The number of females studying in sciences, mathematics and technology in the University globally is very few compared to their male counterparts. This in-turn has affected the number and performances of Women in Sciences in a world increasingly shaped by science and technology. The paper examined women in sciences in Nigerian schools, women in sciences in other African countries and women in sciences overseas. The reasons for this observed phenomenon include the belief among parents, teachers and even the female students that science, mathematics and technology subject (SMT) are for boys and SMT based careers are exclusion for men. The women overseas believed that for women in sciences, the pace of progress at Top Universities is slow and there is gender bias in favour of the men by the Universities in negotiating salaries, laboratory spaces and money for researches. Recommended steps for enhancing globally women enrolment into science-based courses in the community level by Non-Government Organization of female scientists, mobilization of parents to give equal opportunity to boys and girls to go to school, provision of special scholarship for girls in sciences by governments of various, sciences and establishment of female boarding schools at the secondary school levels for the women overseas, factors associated with gender inequalities should be grossly addressed.
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Enhancing Groundwater Exploration Through the Combination of Electrical Resistivity and Spontaneous Potential: a Case Study of Airport Road Area and Environs, Benin City, Nigeria

Author(s): OKANIGBUAN, P.N, OMOZEJE, F.E, OKANIGBUAN, O.R (2014)
Published at :research journal of environmental and earth sciences
subsurface geo-electrical survey using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and spontaneous potential method was carried out in fifteen different location within the study are with a view of investigating and characterization of the subsurface geology and ground water potential of the study areas. geophysical investigations were carried out using the schlumberger array configuration. logging of drilled boreholes was carried out self potential interpretation, results were obtained, by plotting the short, long normal and long lateral resistivity. they were interpreted using the computer iteration method. the results reveal five geo-electric layers. the first layer is laterite (topsoil). the second layer is white coarse sand. the third layer is white very coarse sand, the fourth layer is a dry sandy unit with occasional intercalation of clay lenses and the fifth layer is a sandy unit with water saturation. for adesogbe, the depth ranges from 45m to 90m while in oko prison, the depth ranges from 44 to 92m. therefore, a maximum screen depth of 90 or 92m, respectively (300 feet) is advised. both results, when correlated were found to be consistent.
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Enterohaemorrhagic E. Coli 0157:h7 Prevalence in Meat and Vegetables Sold in Benin City Nigeria.

Author(s): ENABULELE, S. A. AND URAIH, N. (2009)
Published at :African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3(5): 276-279
Abstract Food samples made up of three meat types of 72 samples each of fresh meat from abattoir and open traditional market and “ready to eat” grilled meat (suya) and three vegetable types consisting of 72 each of cabbage, lettuce and tomatoes all totaling 432 samples, were screened to determine the presence of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in these food items sold in Benin City, Nigeria. Of the total food samples analyzed E. coli was isolated from 365(84.45%) out of which 10(2.32%) had E. coli 0157:H7. 72(100%) each of the abattoir and open traditional market samples had E. coli, while 41(56.9%) suya samples had E. coli isolated from them. Of these, 5(6.94%) abattoir samples, 2(2.78) open traditional market and 3(4.17%) suya samples had E. coli 0157:H7 present on them. The cabbage, lettuce and tomatoes had 48(66.67%), 68(94.99%) and 64(88.8%) samples with E. coli respectively. E. coli 0157:H7 was not detected in any of the vegetable samples. Most significant of the result is the finding that E. coli 0157:H7 is present in meat sold in Benin City, Nigeria and especially in the “ready to eat” grilled meat (suya) which is consumed directly without further processing. There is therefore the need for health authorities to put in place measures to prevent possible E. coli 0157:H7 outbreak.
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Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Intentions Among Nigerian Undergraduates

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. AND OGUNRIN, F. O. (2010)
Published at :Ghana Journal of Development Studies, 17(2), 96-118
Economic development is largely driven by the business activities of entrepreneurs- those individuals who create private enterprises. For this development to occur, however, a nation must possess a significant mass of business people. The psychological literature suggests that attitude and intention precede corresponding behaviours; and in terms of entrepreneurship, research evidence suggests that university education promotes positive entrepreneurial attitude and intention, and ultimately entrepreneurial behaviour in individuals. Graduates are therefore regarded as potential entrepreneurs: the higher the number of undergraduates who hold positive entrepreneurial attitude and intention, the higher the number likely to create their own businesses after their graduation. This study therefore was designed to examine the prevalence of entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions among Nigerian undergraduate; and to investigate the roles of gender, Locus of Control, parents’ occupation and social support as possible predictor variables. Male students were found to be more internal on the LOC trait than the females. This internality, as well as the entrepreneurial occupations and approval of respondents’ mothers significantly predicted a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship. The paper concluded by recommending measures that can strengthen positive entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions in Nigeria undergraduates, and ultimately enhance business orientation rates among the nation’s graduates.
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Entrepreneurship - a Panacea for Youth Unemployment in Nigeria: Implication of Vocational Counselling for National Development.

Author(s): AGBOOLA J.O (2014)
Published at :Edo Journal of Counselling (7), 238-253.
Introduction: In Nigeria, unemployment is a very serious problem combating all the states. Although accurate statistical data are lacking, local media reports however indicate that half of the Nigerian population of about 150 million are youths and that about 95% of them are unemployed. Idleness, decadence of economic stagnation and poverty have driven a large percentage of them into robbery, prostitution and violence. Nwachukwu and Nwamuo (2010) noted that when youths are not gainfully employed either in the public or private sector of the economy, they become very vulnerable to criminalities such as kidnapping, armed robbery, and many other social vices which are a menace to the society. In the same vain Ewumi, and Owoyale (2012) noted that one of the many pressing challenges facing Nigeria today is youths unemployment with the ripple effect of their resort to violent crime. All forms of antisocial vices are traceable to the unemployed youths. In order to address this issue of unemployment, the Federal as well as the State governments have made some efforts through some agencies by creating skills acquisition programmes, yet many graduates and even post-graduates degree holders are still parading fine and quality certificates without employment either by public or private organizations. As a result of this, the importance of entrepreneurship development of the economy has received increased attention in Nigeria in the recent time. The Federal Government of Nigeria since 1960 has put in place different kind of institutional frame work to promote small scale enterprises in the country. These include the establishment of industrial development centers (IDCS), the Small Scale Industries Credit Scheme (SSICS), Credit Guidelines to Financial Institution (CGFI), Working For Yourself/Entrepreneurship Development Programme (WFYP/EDP), National Economic Reconstruction Fund (NERF) and the Endorsement of Micro-finance Banking System (EMBS) whose duty is to give loans to enable their customers establish small scale businesses. All these are geared towards the promotion of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship, in this context, is seen as the process of discovering new ways of combining resources and becoming aware of business ownership as an option or viable alternative, by developing ideas for business; learning the process of becoming a business owner, undertaking the training to acquire the skills required to establish and develop business. It includes the practical application of enterprising qualities such as initiative, innovation, creativity and risk-taking into the work environment (either in self employment or employment in small start-up firms) using appropriate skills necessary for success in that environment and culture. The entrepreneur is often referred to as the agent of social, economic and technological development. The formal processes of equipping the entrepreneur with necessary insight and skill are through formal education, entrepreneurial training and development. Training is considered as the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and/or skills for definite purpose (Bench, 1975). The objective of training is to cause changes in behaviour of the trained. It should be noted that training means to guide someone through instruction and drill for skills acquisition. Learning is another related concept which means the human process by which skills, knowledge, habits and attitudes are acquired and utilized in such a way that behaviour is modified. Thus education as used here is inclusive of training and learning process (Ogundele & Kio, 2002) and the essence of these training is for development. Development at the individual level according to Rodney (2005) is the increase in skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline responsibility and material well being. The achievement of any of these aspects of personal development is directly related to the state of the society as a whole. At the level of social groups, development implies an increasing capacity to regulate both internal and external relationship. Rodney (2005) is of the view that the tool with which men work and the manner in which they organise their labour are important indices of social development. He further noted that development when used exclusively in economic sense, refers to how members of a society increase, jointly exercise their capacity for subduing the environment. Capacity here is dependent on the extent to which they understand the laws of nature (science), technological know-how and organisation of work which are assisted by the processes of formal education, training and development in the society. Nwachukwu and Nwamuo (2010), see the application of these qualities as a process known as “Entrepreneurism” which leads to ventures on the social, political or business spheres and if one needs to acquire entrepreneurial skills for either private or public employments, there is a dire need for vocational counselling especially in the Nigerian secondary schools to create awareness on the importance on entrepreneurial education . Vocational counselling is a career service that focuses on helping those who need to obtain work. When people seek out for a vocational counsellor or are referred to one, they may work with that counsellor to evaluate and improve skills for jobs creation. Vocational Counsellors assess interests and abilities in order to properly guide their clients in making the right career choices in life. The Vocational Counsellor also networks with other agencies and government departments to educate and/or advocate on behalf of consumers to promote awareness of persons with unique entrepreneurial skills. The overall goal is to create an environment that will enhance the usability of skills and competences in their individual clients. The essence of vocational counselling is not only to ensure quality education, but also to help individuals acquire the knowledge, enhance skills, and experience necessary to identify opinions, explore alternatives and succeed in life. As a future self-employed, making decisions about the future business can be a stressful and overwhelming process but it is necessary to make sure that the information and counselling received evaluates the real interests, values and skills, to develop the ideal careers (Sarpe, Chirita, and Toma, 2012). Certainly, when information is wrong, the informed will be deformed. So to avoid this problem, appropriate information is needed in the development of entrepreneurship among the youths and this can only be achieved through professional vocational counselling. It is sure that when counsellors perform their expected duties in the school setting, the students will be satisfied as their different academic, vocational, social and personal life aspirations are fulfilled. The purpose of this paper therefore is to emphasize the importance of Entrepreneurship education through vocational counselling, in providing students in all levels of education in the Nigerian schools, with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings that would inevitably reduce unemployment among the Nigerian youths. Concept of Entrepreneurship Education According to Akudolu (2010) entrepreneurship education is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitude to enable the learner apprehend life challenges in whatever form and take decisive steps to realize new trends and opportunities for meeting those challenges in all aspects of human life. Entrepreneurship education is indeed a critical resource for whole life education. It is different from other forms of education because it emphasises realization of opportunities. These opportunities can be realized through starting a business, introducing new products or ideas or through doing something in a different way with the aim of achieving goals. The Goal and Objectives of Entrepreneurship Education. The major goal of entrepreneurship education is for learners to acquire entrepreneurial knowledge and skills that will lead to self employment. In order to achieve the major goal of entrepreneurship education instructional activities should be directed towards the achievement of the following specific objectives as identified by Obanya (2008). i. Demonstrate a good grasp of society – its functions, its economic demands etc. ii. Recognize socio-economic opportunities in environment. iii. Acquire and deploy the skills necessary for turning opportunities into viable ventures. These objectives can be achieved at different levels of education by first of all, creating the awareness of self employment and entrepreneurship as options for future career. Fitting Entrepreneurial Education Into School Organization At All Levels Akudolu (2010) recommended that entrepreneurship education should be a school-wide programme covering basic education through tertiary education. The programme can fit into any of the various school programmes and be implemented as follows: a. Basic Education. Entrepreneurship education should be built into all school activities and emphasis should also be on the creation of entrepreneurship awareness in the learners in order to develop right attitudes and values dimension as well as on basic lifelong learning skills. All basic education teachers are to use entrepreneurship – driven methodology. b. Upper Basic Education Level. At this level, students should be exposed to the knowledge and skills dimensions of entrepreneurship education across the curriculum through the systematic use of entrepreneurship-driven methodology and emphasis should be on creating entrepreneurship environment. c. Tertiary Education. This level of education should encompass all instructional activities strategically planned to foster entrepreneurship environment and entrepreneurship courses should be made compulsory for all the students. The courses should be taught through creative methodology Model of Entrepreneurship Development for National Development. Emergence MICRO LEVEL Biological makeup, mental capacity, attitudes, Entrepreneurial motivations, needs, etc. skills INTERMEDIATE LEVEL training, government support programming for Vocational developing entrepreneurs Counselling Entrepreneurial National practice, radio, television, Effectiveness Development MACRO LEVEL family, schooling, social groups, Entrepreneurship society values, economic Education conditions, political system and priorities culture, religious values, etc. Source: Adapted from (Ogundele , 2005) and modified by the researcher. The model of entrepreneurship for national development designed by Ogundele (2005) shows that entrepreneurship can result in positive changes which can lead to a great and dynamic economy in Nigeria in 21st century. The model showed the process for the education, training and development programme that are expected to produce the desired changes in the individuals and groups behaviour, which will in turn lead to positive improvement in the economy of the society. At the micro level of the model, focus is on the personality of the individual or entrepreneur. The issues of focus at this level are the fundamental characteristics of the individual. They are based partly on the physical make-up of the individuals and the mental capacity which will set some limits as to the types of the opportunities that could be exploited by him/her. Others are the individual’s attitudes, motivations and needs as a member of a family and the general society. Training and development are expected to positively help in reducing areas of shortcomings which will lead to improved performance in entrepreneurship practice. The intermediate level relates to supportive institutions and agencies that could further mould the entrepreneurs or individuals, by equipping them with more practically oriented skills and competencies for improve performance. The assumptions are that existing or practicing entrepreneurs could perform better when exposed to relevant education, training and development and non- entrepreneurs could be developed to become active entrepreneurs or self-employed. This is because deficiencies that are manifested in entrepreneurial practice may be corrected through on and off the job trainings and the provision of financial support and training facilities could facilitate the emergence of new entrepreneurs. This calls for supports from various institutions ranging from private institutions, government agencies and, multinational organisations. The macro level focuses on the individual’s childhood and adolescence environments which include the homes, schools, social groups, economic characteristics of the environment political systems, technology, culture and religion. Various combinations of these macro level variables will determine the types of education, which the individuals are exposed to, with entrepreneurially oriented education, training and development in mind through vocational counselling. These will consequently affect the processes of emergence, behaviour and performance of entrepreneur, which, if properly handled with appropriate visions and implementation, will lay the foundation for educating and developing the touch bearer for national development in the 21st century. Installing Educational, Training and Development Programme or Entrepreneurial Development Ogundele (2000) noted that the levels of formal education, types of technical, vocational, managerial and other forms of specialised education, training and development will affect entrepreneurship. Lack of appropriate and necessary education, training and development would adversely affect the positive development of the economy. Therefore, appropriate entrepreneurial educational training and development programmes must be provided for pupils and students at various levels of Nigeria educational systems and for the adult in other forms of social institutions of which they are members. Skills to be Developed in Entrepreneurs and the General Society for National Development in the 21st Century According to Ogundele, (2005), the demands of globalization have shown that Nigeria entrepreneurs must have multiples of skills if they are to be agents of national development. He categorized these skills into three broad categories with twenty eight elements. The first is Management Development Perspective Skills. There are thirteen elements in this category, they are; time managements, entrepreneurial self development, managing change for competitive success; decision-making, human resources environment of business; helping people to learn; team building; project management, re-engineering or business process redesign; total quality management, organizational development, corporate excellence and people skills. The second is Interpersonal Skills. There are also twelve elements in this group, they include; leadership; subordinate development, delegation and counselling, information technology, re-engineering entrepreneurship ventures, managing information, employee empowerment, conflict management, negotiating, and communication skills. The third category is cross-sectional skills. This group consists of four elements which are innovation/creativeness, planning, organizing and Kaizen skills. Apart from the 28 skills areas listed above, other skills development necessary for Nigeria entrepreneurs are cultural adaptation, managing knowledge for organization success, creating participative organization, quality customer service, managing ones health, physical, mental job specific, technical transfer of knowledge and human relations skills. These skills must be developed in Nigeria entrepreneurs so as to be able to face effectively the challenges of globalization and other environmental factors, which will lead to national development. The adaptation and implementation of these proposals can be the sure foundations for rapid national development in Nigeria in the 21st century. Entrepreneurship Education and Vocational Counselling Entrepreneurship is the ability to make use of the right quantity, quality and combination of resources that are consistent with profit making under risks and uncertainty effectively. Entrepreneurship is the process of discovering new ways of combining resources and becoming aware of business ownership as an option or viable alternative, develop ideas for business; learn the process of becoming a business owner, undertake the training and skills required to establish and develop the business. Entrepreneurship is the ability to become self employed through the use of acquired skills, ideas and managerial abilities necessary for self-reliance. In every country, entrepreneurship is important because it leads to reduction of unemployment through creation of valuable jobs for the entrepreneurs and others (George & Archibong, 2010). This will to a large extent reduce government expenditure in a way and thus contributing to a balanced budget for the economy. Apart from this, entrepreneurship capacities enable graduates by self-determination to create their own future, exploit the opportunities that emerge in the complex unpredictable worlds and contribute better to economic development and social well – being (Anyamene, Anyachebelu, Nwakolo & Izuchi, 2009).These are achieved through vocational counselling. Vocational Counselling is described as a process of assisting a person to develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of himself and of his role in the world of work with satisfaction to himself and benefit to the society. Vocational services are the services given to help an individual student understand the work, how to find rightful place in it and perform to an optimal level (Nwachukwu, 2007).There have been a lot of studies on the importance of guidance programmes (in which vocational counselling is one) and entrepreneurship development among students and the youths in general. Ubah, (2010) found out that counselling will intensively equip students for sound public relation, self understanding and better management skills which will facilitate entrepreneurship development; better educational and occupational adjustments can enhance students’ entrepreneurship whereby the students are assisted to harness abilities and potentials to be more productive educationally and vocationally and hence become more enterprising to attain sustainable employment which will in turn contribute to national development. These qualities can be inculcated into our curriculum at every level of the Nigerian educational system in training the youths on job creation Role of the Counsellor in Entrepreneurship Education. Development is a process that leads to maturity. According to Ewumi and Owoyele (2012), development means getting the correct environment and putting healthy people into such environment and exposing them to situations of learning to actively strive towards unfolding inner endowments in such a manner that full realization and fruition is realized. Sustainability means the ability to hold, to retain, to keep and build on what has been built, reclaimed or achieved. Sustainable development therefore means an unfolding and actualization of endowment which is conducted such that no ground is lost, but indeed a later achievement is built on an earlier one through the introduction of entrepreneurship education in schools. As Entrepreneurship Education is being introduced into Senior Secondary Education Curriculum, the counsellor has a vital role to play in making sure that the concept of entrepreneurship is explained in schools and promoted as a career opportunity for youths through vocational counselling right from primary school and teachers of different subjects should be re-oriented to design lessons towards entrepreneurship education since most tertiary institutions owned by both public and private individuals across the country have units for entrepreneurship skills acquisition (Alademerin, 2004). With this as noted by Orubele, (2005), the present unemployment situation will change when the youths are guided effectively at school into choosing subjects and occupations that best suit their individual abilities and interests. Entrepreneurial education offers students the opportunity of acquiring the necessary technical know– how on business management, risk taking in business management thereby creating productive society as well as eradicating unemployment in the nation. Vocational counselling is needed to achieve this. . Vocational Counselling and Entrepreneurship Education will assist learners to create wealth in future by integration of school education within the economic activities of the community. Anagbogu (2002), suggested that vocational counsellors should stress the possibility of self –employment, the nature of occupations, the job requirements as this will help the students after graduation to apply the knowledge in varying context. Lack of vocational counselling through occupational information and non-inclusion of entrepreneurship courses in school curriculum had led to the production of graduates without entrepreneurial knowledge and skills for effective running of business, hence emergence of increased unemployment trend in the society. Conclusion The functional implementation of entrepreneurship education in schools at all levels of education will enable students especially the youths to discover their respective abilities which they can put into optimal utility for national economic development. This pursuance of entrepreneurship education through vocational counselling will help students and the youths in general to build more competence and balanced future hopes for themselves as this will enhance high economic productivity and thus drastically reduces the damaging high rate of unemployment in the country. Recommendations. • Professional counsellors should be employed in schools at all levels of education in Nigeria so as to channel the students to their appropriate centers for skills acquisitions for the maximum achievement of their respective potentials. • Teachers should ensure that they use the right methodology in the teaching of those vocational courses to enable the students acquire the right through active participation in the teaching and learning process. • Experts should be employed to carry out the practical aspect of the vocational subjects for acquisition of the appropriate skills needed for self reliance. • Parents should be sensitized on the need for skills acquisitions for one or more trades for their children. • Government should make provision for appropriate equipments to enable the trained experts carry out the practical teaching of these vocational subjects in the schools. References. Akudolu, L.A (2010). Curriculum framework for entrepreneurship Education. UNZIK oreint Journal Of Education, 5(2), 25-34 Alademerin, E. A. (2004). Basic concepts, principles and practice of vocational education. Lagos: Femkarl Nigeria Limited. Anagbogu, M. A. (2002). Foundations of guidance and counselling for colleges and universities (2nd Ed) Enugu: Academic Printing Press. Anyamene, A. N., Anyachebelu, F. E., Nwokolo, C. N. & Izuchi, M. N. (2009). Strategies for promoting entrepreneurship education among undergraduates: The perception of counselors. UNIZIK Orient Journal. 3(1): 87-96. Beach, P.S. (1975). Personnel Management of People at Work, 3rd Ed. New York; Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. Ewumi, M.A & Owoyele, J.W (2012). Entrepreneurship education as panacea for youth unemployment: Implication Of Vocational Counselling For Sustainable National Development. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(14) George, I. N. & Archibong, G. A. (2010). Poverty eradication through entrepreneurial guidance: Implication for Vocational Counselling in Nigeria in CASSON 2010 Conference Proceedings. 1.228-236. Nwachukwu, D. N. (2007). The Teacher Counsellors for today’s school. Enhancing millennium teaching learning initiative. Business Education Journal, 2(4), 190-121. Nwachukwu, L. C. & Nwamuo, P. (2010). Entrepreneurship development for sustainable Livelihood among youths in Imo State: Implications for Counselling in Conference Proceedings CASSON 2010,1, 18-26. Obanya, P. (2008). Curriculum for entrepreneurship education. Unpublished manuscript. Ogundele O.J.K (2000): Determinants of entrepreneurial Emergence, Behaviour and performance in Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Lagos, Akoka Ogundele O.J.K (2005). Entrepreneurship development for a great and dynamic economy in Nigeria in 2nd Annual Conference of National Association for Encouraging Quality Education held in Ambrose Alli University. Ogundele O.J.K and Kio J.S. (2002). Education, communication and behavioural change in Nigeria and NEPAD in 2nd National Conference; Lagos State National Polytechnic, Ikorodu,. Orubele, N. (2005). Youth empowerment should be priority for government. The Punch, Friday 10th June, 2005. Rodney, W (2005). How Europe underdeveloped Africa, Abuja, Panaf Press. Sarpe, D, Chirita M. & Toma, S (2012). Entrepreneurial Phenomenon: Some Reasons for Career Choice Intentions. Academia. Education, University of Galati, Romania Ubah, A. C. (2010). Perceived Impact of guidance and counselling services on the development of entrepreneurial skills for sustainable livelihood among students in CASSON 2010 Conference Proceedings. 1, 219-227.
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Entrepreneurship Education in Nigeria: Progress, Problems and Prospects.

Author(s): OISAMOJE, M. D. AND ARUOREN, E. E. (2013)
Published at : Journal of Collaborative Research and Development, 1(1), 205-216.
Journal of Collaborative Research and Development, 1(1), 205-216. Abstract Entrepreneurship is an instrument that helps to guarantee national competitive advantage in the current globalized economy. The purpose of entrepreneurship education is to create in the populace, particularly students at all levels of the Nigerian educational system, an entrepreneurial mind-set that encourages and enhances success in entrepreneurial pursuit. This paper therefore examines the extent to which these goals have been achieved in the Nigerian educational system. It highlights the progress made so far, identifies some problems and challenges that have constrained proper development of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education within the country, and then appraises the prospects of effective and efficient entrepreneurship education in Nigeria. The methodology adopted in the paper is essentially a theoretical evaluation of relevant literature. Findings indicate that while some modest progress has been made at the university level, not much has been achieved at both the secondary and primary levels of the Nigerian educational system. Furthermore, lack of infrastructural facilities, dearth of trained resource personnel, lack of harmonized entrepreneurial curriculum, lack of commitment from stakeholders and unstable government policies were some of the challenges identified in the paper. Finally, the paper offers policy recommendations Keywords: Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial curriculum, entrepreneurial pursuit, globalized economy, Nigerian educational system
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Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Rural Development

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. AND INEDIA, G. (1995)
Published at :Nigerian Economic and Financial Review, 1(1), 69-81
This study analysed the operations of firms using the NIFOR small-scale Processing Equipment (SSPE) in terms of their contribution to rural development in the areas of entrepreneurship, employment and income generation, and the impact of the technology on the traditional distribution of palm oil processing activities between males and females. Four enterprises located in rural areas in Edo and Delta States were selected for a detailed case study while 110 local processors/harvesters in the immediate communities of the enterprises were surveyed. The results indicate that the entrepreneurs who established Small-Scale enterprises using the new technology were mostly educated individuals who had earlier migrated from the rural areas but who returned to locate their enterprise in their place of origin. The mills generated appreciable employment and income directly and indirectly. However, even though skill level was not a constraint on labour participation in processing activities, women seem to have been displaced in enterprises using the new technology. The efficiency of the mills was low due mainly to inadequate supply of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). While the new technology did not compete with the traditional processing technology and therefore did not affect the incomes of women who use the traditional technology in processing palm oil, it induced the revival of abandoned small-holder plantations. The conclusion of the study was that the innovation has the potential of accelerating rural development. There is need to encourage entrepreneurs to establish small-scale industries in their rural origin and improve access to land especially by women.
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