547 Publications

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Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Rural Development

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. AND INEDIA, G. (1995)
Published at :Nigerian Economic and Financial Review, 1(1), 69-81
This study analysed the operations of firms using the NIFOR small-scale Processing Equipment (SSPE) in terms of their contribution to rural development in the areas of entrepreneurship, employment and income generation, and the impact of the technology on the traditional distribution of palm oil processing activities between males and females. Four enterprises located in rural areas in Edo and Delta States were selected for a detailed case study while 110 local processors/harvesters in the immediate communities of the enterprises were surveyed. The results indicate that the entrepreneurs who established Small-Scale enterprises using the new technology were mostly educated individuals who had earlier migrated from the rural areas but who returned to locate their enterprise in their place of origin. The mills generated appreciable employment and income directly and indirectly. However, even though skill level was not a constraint on labour participation in processing activities, women seem to have been displaced in enterprises using the new technology. The efficiency of the mills was low due mainly to inadequate supply of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). While the new technology did not compete with the traditional processing technology and therefore did not affect the incomes of women who use the traditional technology in processing palm oil, it induced the revival of abandoned small-holder plantations. The conclusion of the study was that the innovation has the potential of accelerating rural development. There is need to encourage entrepreneurs to establish small-scale industries in their rural origin and improve access to land especially by women.
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Environmental Pollution; Poverty and Population Issues in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

In this article the author raises the issue of environmental pollution; the attendant poverty and the adverse effect on the population of Niger Deltans occasioned by oil exploration in the area and proposes a religious approach to the issue and the resultant restiveness in the Niger Delta.
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Ethical Issues at the Nigerian Bar Associaton-a Legal Analysis.*

Author(s): *J.E. IDUGBOE ESQ. LL.B.(HONS) IFE, LL.M. JOS, B.L., (2012)
As a result of high incidence of unethical conduct among lawyers, highly innovative and a fairly comprehensive revision of the rules of professional conduct were made for the guidance of members of the Nigerian Bar Association(NBA), including mandatory continuous education of legal practitioners in 2007. The duties of the legal practitioner to the court, his profession and his clients amongst others have been highlighted. However, committed enforcement of these rules and speedy trials of culprits are lacking, therefore a lot more need to be done to attain a high level of discipline in the profession.
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Ethics and New Public Management Mantra in the United Kingdom Public Sector

Author(s): EGHOSA, OSA EKHATOR (2013)
Published at :International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 8, No 1
This short article will explore the value base that underpins New Public Management and its interplay with ethics in the UK public sector. For example, the public sector’s business-like operations, individual responsibility and mistrust of human behavior amongst others will be brought to the fore. Furthermore, this article will also explore how ethics/standards have become a ‘managed’ process, e.g. reports, audit amongst others. Notwithstanding the views to the contrary, this article will advocate that the values inherent in the New Public Management doctrine has not led to the erosion of ethical standards. This article is divided into six sections. The first section is the introduction. This section will define ethics and the New Public Management (NPM) mantra. The second section will dwell on the expected ethical standards and effects of New Public Management in the UK public sector. The third section will focus on the values of NPM in the UK public sector. Organizational impacts of NPM will be the focus of the fourth section of the article. The fifth section of the article will dwell on the criticisms of NPM and its interplay in the public sector. The final section is the conclusion. Here, a summary will be attempted and the article will posit that NPM is not inherently bad.
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Evaluation of Fungicide on Growth and Conidial Germination of Verticillium Theobromae Isolated from Plantain.

Author(s): IGELEKE, C. L. AND D. K. G. AYANRU (2007)
Published at :Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(4): 531-535.
An evaluation of three fungicides, namely, benomyl [methyl 1-(butyl- carbamoyl)-2- benzimidazole carbamate], calixin (tridomorph) and dithane M-45 (mancozeb), was carried out for their inhibitory effects on Verticillium theobromae, the causal organism of cigar-end rot disease of plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The LD50 of calixin, benomyl and Dithane M-45 in inhibiting mycelial growth were, 0.14, 0.98 and 535.17 ug / mL respectively. Calixin was also the most effective in conidial germination inhibition with an LD 50 of 21.78ug/mL as compared with dithane M-45 86.39 ug/ mL and benomyl 275.50ug/ mL. Germ tubes of the test organism were distorted by the fungicides at varying concentrations. Calixin had greater distortion effect at a lower concentration of 10 ug/ mL, dithane M-45 (100ug/ mL) and benomyl (1000 ug/mL). The relevance of these results in relation to the control and management of cigar-end rot disease of plantain is discussed. Key Words: Fungicide, growth inhibition, Verticillium theobromae, plantain.
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Evaluation of Microbial Spoilage of Some Aquacultured Fresh Fish in Benin City, Nigeria

Author(s): WOGU. M.D. AND MADUAKOR, C.C. (2010)
Published at :Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 3(3), l8 – 22
The microbial load of ready-to-eat rice from both local fast food centers (local restaurants) and Standard fast food centers (high class restaurants) within Benin City was investigated. The total colony count ranged from 2.0 × 104 to 1.2 ×106 for bacteria and 8.0 ×104 to 2.0 × 105 for fungi. Four bacteria were isolated: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. B. cereus, which is mainly associated with food poisoning because of its ability to produce toxins, was present in 37.5% of samples alongside E.coli. Two fungi were isolated: Saccharomyces cerevisae, occurring in 50% of samples, and Aspergillus niger. Ready-to-eat rice from standard fast food centers was found to have more microbial load and more microorganisms compared to ready-to-eat rice from local fast food centers. The results of our study indicated that most of the ready-to-eat rice samples examined did not meet bacteriological quality standards. Hence, it is recommended that a more close supervision of ready-to-eat food should be carried out by relevant authorities.
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Evil Exposed and Conquered

Author(s): EKEOBA S.O. (2011)
Published at :Benson Idahosa University
For Millennia, our Church Fathers and the succeeding Scholastic, Christian Philosophers, and Christian Theologians had thought that the Christian God could not have created evil and still be a “Good God”. And generally, even in human thoughts, the origin of evil was never attributed to God Almighty; but to the devil and to men who had misused their God given freedom of choice. They feel that evil is not a thing created but that it is a negation of good. This work, derived from Biblical Scriptures, advocates that God actually created evil for a purpose; and he also has a cure for all evils in all of human experiences. Find out “THE HOW” in this book, “EVIL EXPOSED AND CONQUERED”
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Examination Malpractices: a Threat to Reliable Human Resource Development in Nigeria

In Nigeria today, examination malpractice has assumed an alarming and embarrassing dimension both in public and internal examinations at all levels. It is the wish of every education system to inculcate into her recipients, the necessary skills to adopt meaningfully into their environment. Sequel to this, educational system used examination to test their reliability and validity. Although examinations are not the only instrument for assessing and evaluating knowledge, it has emerged as the major established yardstick and the most practical way of assessment. The over dependence on certificate as the key to employment has, however, led to a crazy rush by most people to try and acquire certificates either legitimately or illegitimately. In recent times in this country-Nigeria, the occurrence of examination malpractices have assumed an alarming trend and this is invariably due to candidates’ fear of failure, lack of confidence, laziness and most often inability to apply themselves to their studies. Nowadays, examination malpractice has become more sophisticated with the advent and use of electronic assisted materials, calculators, palmtops (which are mini-computers) are sent to examination halls unnoticed. Organizers, small sized compact discs, mobile phones, though not allowed in examination halls are sneaked in because messages could be text to them in the hall. For the result of an examination to be credible, valid and reliable, the examination must have been taken according to the rules and regulations. It has to be acceptable by employers of labours, institutions and countries without suspicious. This paper focuses on examination malpractices as a threat to reliable human resource development in Nigerian educational system.
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Experimental Assessment of Specific Absorption Rate Using Measured Electric Field Strength in Benson Idahosa University and Environs

Published at :American Journal of Modern Physics.
Abstract: There has been growing concern in Nigeria and even the world at large that exposure to radiation from base stations and mobile handsets could lead to increased risk of illnesses such as cancer and may adversely affect cognitive functions like concentration and may cause memory loss, headaches, dizziness and epilepsy among others. In the present paper, the Assessment of RF radiation in the far-field from selected mobile base station sites in BIU and environs, Benin City, Nigeria has been carried out using a handheld three-axis radio frequency meter (EMF meter) for measurement of Electric field. The meter is a broad band device for monitoring high frequency radiation in range of 50 MHz to 3.6GHz. It is used in three-axis (isotropic) measurement mode. The electric field strength of RF radiation within a radial distance of the range 0- 100m was measured with the RF meter. The average values of the Specific absorption rate for the general public were estimated from the measured electric field strength and the values gotten were compared with International commission on Non-ionizing radiation. Results shows that the values of the SAR for the eighth base stations selected for the study are within the range of 0.00010W/Kg- 0.0012W/Kg. These values are quite lower than the limit by International Commission on Non –ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) which is 0.08W/Kg for the whole body average SAR. This may indicate that there is no significant health risk for the general public that are always the vicinity of the Far field of the selected base stations for the various mobile service provider the area. Key Words: Mobile phone base station, International Commission on Non –ionizing Radiation Protection, specific absorption rate, exposure level.
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Experimental Investigation of Throughput Performance of Ieee 802.11g Ofdm Based Systems in a Campus Environment

Published at :International Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2(8) August 2013, Pages: 427-434
In recent years, most Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) are based on the IEEE 802.11b, 802.11a, 802.11g or 802.11n standards. These standards define how to wirelessly connect computers or devices to a network. Wireless enabled devices can send and receive data anywhere within the range of a wireless access point. The choice of the Wireless LAN protocol depends on the requirements of the individuals or a company who aims to implement the WLAN infrastructure. Some of the parameters that should be considered in selecting an appropriate WLAN working protocol are data communications speed and range. In this paper, an experimental investigation of the impact of packet data communication on IEEE 802.11g OFDM based systems for throughput performance evaluation was conducted on the campus of Benson Idahosa University. The results at different routes show a very interesting feature that the throughput is not susceptible to be affected by change in distance between the Aps and the measurement locations. This may indicates that the data communication links are able to support the required bandwidth and there are no network failures. It also shows that that the packet drop rate on the communication links is low. This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the WLAN system with OFDM interface can effectively use multipath component because of guard period incorporated in the system.
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Experimental Study of Umts Radio Signal Propagation Characteristics by Field Measurement

Published at :American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)
Knowledge of propagation characteristics in the mobile channel is important to the design, analysis and optimisation of a cellular system. Such need is of great concern to achieve higher quality standards, lower overall running cost, minimize transmit power, better covering of different areas with different environmental situations. Thus, received signal prediction models play an important role in the RF coverage optimization and efficient use of the available resources in wireless communication. As the demand of location based services (LBS) increases in non-line of site (NLOS) environment, a robust received signal prediction model is needed to enhance the accuracy of the LBS techniques. This paper presents a large scale received signal prediction model for various types of propagation environment from field measured signal data. Based on the experimental data obtained, path loss exponent and standard deviation of signal strength variability are determined. It is shown that the values of these parameters vary from study location to location in the coverage area. The results indicate that different empirical models for mean signal strength should be used in different regions of the coverage area for cellular network planning. Keywords: - Signal Propagation Characteristics, Propagation Exponent Received, Signal strength Prediction model, coverage optimisation
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Exploring the Environmental and Economic Benefits of Solar Energy Generation in Developing Countries: the Nigerian Perspective.

Author(s): OISAMOJE, M. D. AND OISAMOJE, E. E. (2013)
Published at :Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, 3(6), 23-31.
Fossil fuels are the main sources that are being used to produce energy today. They are not only fast depleting but they are also polluting the environment, and affecting the economic stability of many countries. While renewable energy has been spoken about for more than three decades, fossil fuels have increased in use and reduced in supply. Although some gains have been made in the quest for alternative energy sources, there is an urgent need for a switch to renewable energy sources in time enough to avoid significant and permanent environmental and climatic changes. Solar energy source of generating electricity among others represents a new opportunity that promises a clean and environmentally friendly and economic energy production for developing countries in tropical regions. This paper examines the economic and environmental benefits of solar energy generation in Nigeria, and also evaluates the economic and environmental viability of the sun’s potential to generate electricity power for majority of the residents of Nigeria. Keywords: alternative energy, economic stability, environmental viability, fossil fuels, renewable energy, solar energy
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Exploring Voltage Output Using a Dye- Sensitized Solar Cell

Author(s): E. O. OSAFILE AND O. D. OJUH. (2013)
Published at :International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2013, pp. 120-123. (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ijmsa) doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20130203.19
Abstract: A dye-sensitized solar cell consisting of two conducting glass electrodes in a sandwich arrangement was developed in the laboratory. Both electrodes were coated with tin dioxide after which the non conductive electrode was again coated with titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is designed to serve as an absorbent for the dye. The technology adopted in this paper is that the dye molecules absorb light, and produce excited electrons which in turn generate current in the output terminals of the cell. The dye regains its lost electron with the aid of the iodide electrolyte present in the cell. This work was done using the following light sources: fluorescent and overhead projector light. The voltages measured from each light source were separately documented. This paper shows that the solar cell exposed to the overhead projector light produced a voltage of between 1.3v and 1.5v while the voltage produced from the solar cell exposed to the fluorescent light was rather low. Cells made from raspberries, blackberries, spinach leaves, and grape fruit dyes were independently experimented on, and results showed that only cells made from the berries yielded reasonable quantity of electrons. This is because they have the right chemical composition and the energy band required to bond with the titanium dioxide which enables the release of electrons when light falls on them. The dye sensitized solar cell is very attractive because the materials needed are not only available but also cheap. In this laboratory work, efficiency evaluation yielded about 14.3% for the blackberry dye-sensitized solar cell. Keywords: Dye Sensitized Solar Cells, Titanium Dioxide, Voltage
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Factor Analysis of Post-implementation Review of Student Information Systems in Nigeria

Author(s): OSAZUWA, A.W. AND CHIEMEKE, S.C. (2008)
Published at :Research Journal of Applied Sciences
The aim of this research, is to evaluate the critical factors that may enhance the successes and failures encountered after implementation of the student information systems within 4 universities (two private and two public), in Edo State, Nigeria. The 4 schools used for this study are University of Benin, Ambrose Alli University, Benson Idahosa University and igbinedion University. This study was carried out using a user-centered post-implementation review exercise on the critical areas of usage of student information system an online questionnaire was designed using Macromedia dreamwaver, PHP and Mysql to gather data from the users of the system. Analysis of data gathered was carried out using SPSS 10 and the statistics that was used is factor analysis in assessing the thirty identified system’s attributes. Four factors were identified amongst the thirty scaled items and all 4 factors are necessary for true measurement in implementing student Information system (SIS) when tested using Cronbach’s alpha scale reliability with an overall output (total alpha) of 0.87. The total percentage variance accumulated by the 4 factors are 63.80%. This, however, indicates that the remaining 37.2% are extraneous variables, which could be attributed to many environmental factors such as management support, maintenance, accuracy, power supply and network connectivity. Keywords: SIS, post-implementation, ICT, IS, university, Nigeria.
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Factors Affecting Performance of Students in English Language in Oredo

Author(s): AWULOR, B. N. (2014)
This paper investigates the causes of poor performance of students in English Language in the senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) in select schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Random sampling technique was used in the selection of schools and a total of ten Secondary Schools were selected from the Local government. The major instrument used for the study was questionnaire, designed for teachers and students in the selected secondary schools. It seeks information from the respondents on the factors affecting the poor performance of students in English Language in Secondary Schools. The investigator administered the questionnaire in person. A total of one hundred questionnaires were distributed to selected teachers and students who were used to collect the relevant data for the research. The data were analyzed using simple percentage score . The results from data analysis revealed that majority of the teachers are not able to give students sufficient work to do from the course content and these among other factors are responsible for the poor performance.
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Factors Affecting the Utilization of Maize Technologies by Farmers in the Transitional Ecological Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.

Author(s): ALAKPA, S.O.E. AND ONEMOLEASE (2014)
Published at : Nigerian Journal of Agriculture and Forestry (NJAF).
The study examined the factors affecting farmers' adoption of improved maize storage technologies in the transitional ecological zone of Edo State, Nigeria. Frequency analysis of data from 148 maize growers reveals that over 80% of them faced serious storage losses especially caused by insect(mean = 3.07) and rodent (mean = 3.01) attack. Storing maize in shed/huts(52%) was the major traditional storage method(39.9%). Chi-square analysis reveals that gender (X2 = 14.16: p<0.05), age (X2= 39.98: p<0.05), farm size (X2=12.86: p<0.05) and income (X2= 18.31: p<0.05) were significant factors affecting farmers adoption of storage technologies. Information about storage technologies. Information about storage technologies should be disseminated to the farmers while efforts should be intensified by all stakeholders to make the technologies available
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Fallacies in the Democratization Process in Nigeria and the Challenges for Education Nigeria and the Challenges for Education

Abstract This study seeks to identify which of the fallacies assembled in this research are common features in the democratization process in order to deduce appropriate educational approach to the attainment of democratic ideal in the country. The problem of this study is the alarming rate of disagreement in our democratization process. This study is based on the theoretical assumption that though disagreement is a necessary condition for politics, minimum level of agreement is required for its sustainability and progress. This study is mindful of the fact that disagreements are rooted in or compounded by fallacies. This study therefore renders some fallacies obtained from literature in political terms in a questionnaire given to fifty (50) academics at random to affirm or otherwise if these fallacies are common in our democratization process. The mean and standard deviation of the responses show that twelve (12) out of the twenty- one (21) fallacies are common fixtures in democratization process in Nigeria. Sequel to this findings; appropriate educational strategies were suggested.
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Fatty Acid and Glyceride Composition of Astrocaryum Vulgare Kernel Fat

Author(s): F.O.J. OBOH & R.A. ODERINDE (1989)
Published at :Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Abstract The kernel composition, lipid classes, fatty acid composition, fatty acid distribution on triglycerides and triglyceride composition of kernel fat from Astrocaryum vulgare Mart palms grown in Nigeria have been studied. Kernels had a high fat content. Lauric acid was the predominant fatty acid in the whole fat and was also the major fatty acid in the triglycerides and in the 2-monoglycerides derived from them by pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. All the fatty acids exhibited a preference for the 1-and-3, positions of triglycerides, except for lauric which showed a preference for the 2-position and oleic which exhibited a random distribution. The trisaturated triglycerides were the predominant triglyceride type and the fatty acid composition of the various triglycerides suggested an absence of completely unsaturated triglycerides. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(88)90114-8
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Financing Small and Medium Industries in Nigeria: a Case Study of the Small and Medium Industries Equity Investment Scheme

Author(s): INEGBENEBOR, A.U. (2006)
Published at :Journal of Financial Management and Analysis, 19(1), 71-180
The SMIEIS is the latest of the schemes designed to tackle the problem of financing Small and Medium Industries (SMIs) in Nigeria. It requires all banks to reserve 10 per cent of their pre-tax profit for equity investment in SMIs. But the utilization rate of the accumulated fund in only 3 per cent. The study focused on the role of entrepreneurs and examined their awareness, readiness and capacity to access and utilize the fund. Data used in this study was collected in the course of the Central Bank of Nigeria – sponsored baseline economic survey of small and medium scale industries in the south- south zone of Nigeria. the sample consisted of 1255 firms selected to represent 13 identified industrial subsectors in the zone. The results showed that the level of awareness of the scheme was only 39 per cent. Although managerial capacity in the firms was high, their capacity to utilize the fund was weak. Suggestions to encourage greater utilization were made.
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Financing University Education: Implication for Tertiary Education Trust Fund in Nigeria

This paper examines the role of Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund) in financing university education in Nigeria. The public sector is the major provider and financier of education in Nigeria since it took over most of the schools in the country from primary to tertiary level in the mid-70s. This was based on the assumption that it is only the government that can effectively provide education appropriates given the externalities associated with it. Both public and private universities should not be left out in financing university education. Since the inception of TETFund as intervention agency for financing university education in Nigeria, essential physical infrastructure for teaching and learning, instructional materials and equipment, research and publication grants have emerged convincible in Nigerian universities. It was concluded that financing university education (public and private) need policy support at the national level and emphasizes more autonomy for universities to engage in entrepreneurial activities and cost sharing measures in financing Nigerian universities. The paper recommended that government should increase allocation to TETFund to enable it execute palpable projects on campuses of Nigerian universities, private universities inclusive.
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First-principles Studies of Band Structure and Electronic Properties of Group Iii- Nitrides Semiconductors

Author(s): OJUH O. D. AND IDIODI J. O. A. (2012)
Published at :Journal of Mathematical Physics Association of Nigeria. Vol. 21: 501- 508.htt://www.nampjournals.org
Abstract We present first-principles calculations of the Structural and electronic properties of zinc blende for different concentrations x of ternary alloy BxIn1-xN. The computational method is based on the pseudopotential method as implemented in the Abinit code. The exchange and correlation energy is described in the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have investigated the effect of composition on the lattice parameters, bulk modulus and band gap of the zinc blende BN, InN. The results obtained are in a good agreement with experimental and theoretical values concerning the variation of the gaps and crossover from direct to indirect band gap and the bowing parameter. Keywords: Lattice parameter, bulk modulus, band gap, bowing parameter and Abinit code.
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Fisheries Biodiversity: the Role of a Traditional Taboo/ritual Prohibition in the Management and Conservation of the Fish Resources of Ibiekuma Stream in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. Bioscience Research Communications, Vol. 20 No. 5: 257-264

Author(s): OBASOHAN, E. E. (2008)
This study surveyed the abundance and species diversity of the fishes of Ibiekuma Stream in Ekpoma, Edo State between January, and December, 2005. Similar surveys were simultaneously conducted in Ikpoba and Ogba Rivers in Benin City. The effects of a local taboo/ritual prohibition as a management strategy were examined and compared with fish species diversity of Ibiekuma Stream where fishing is prohibited were examined and compared with fish species diversities of actively fished Ikpoba and Ogba Rivers. The results showed that fish abundance and species diversity were low in all three water bodies when compared to other rivers in Nigeria, but were significantly higher in Ibiekuma Stream than in Ikpoba and Ogba Rivers. The comparatively higher fish biodiversity in terms of abundance and diversity in ibiekuma Stream were attributed to the salutary effects of the fishing prohibition in the stream. The effects of anthropogenic pollution and exotic species introductions in reducing fish biodiversity especially in Ikpoba and Ogba Rivers were also shown. The findings were discussed with a view to awakening consciousness of the need to conserve aquatic biodiversity with particular reference to fish biodiversity in our streams and rivers in Edo State and in the Nigerian inland water bodies in general.
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Food Security and Nigeria’s Economic Diplomacy

The tremor caused by the global food crisis has prompted renewed consequences on the interconnectedness economic, environmental and global interdependence. The global food crisis in the first decade of 21st century has generated critical debate on environment and development and brought their interactions and effects on global food security under serious scrutiny. Thus, to unearth the cause and effect relationship between environment development, food security and more correspondingly, their challenges on Nigeria’s economic diplomacy in the new international order. Despite the new global awakening and Nigeria’s tremendous potentials in human and natural resources in her years of economic struggle towards guaranteeing food security for her teeming citizenry, the country remained relatively peasant-based in agriculture due to largely emphasis on mono- product oil-economic. The paper examined food security and its implications on Nigerian’s economic diplomacy. It was recommended that Nigeria government should introduce mechanized farming that will make export possible and create jobs for her unemployed teeming youths.
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Freedom of Expression- Past and Present- Legal Challenges

Author(s): JESUOROBO EIDUGHOE (2012)
This paper appraises the early origins of freedom of expression, attempts to contain it by proclamation or enactment of various laws on licensing requirement before publishing censorship of published material, prior restraint, criminal libel, sedition, banning of books alleged to be either seditious of the King and/or his nobles or blasphemous of religion or obscene and civil defamation. Dictatorial empires, monarchies and colonial masters and some countries today enforce them to suppress freedom of speech and expression so that they will not be portrayed in bad light to their subjects in their home countries or in their colonies through adverse subversive publicity. At each stage, the interest and duty of the government to maintain law and order, to be victorious in expansionist military adventurism through the use of propaganda, protection of official secrets, security of the nation from internal and external aggression and the need to protect the private rights of its citizens have to be balanced against the necessity to grant freedom of expression. The paper argues that the advent of democracy in many countries gradually ushered in freedom of expression, without which democracy will be meaningless. Thus, laws on licensing requirement for the print media, censorship, prior restraint, inquisition trials and sedition have been repealed in many democratic countries. The paper opines that today, there are varying degrees of freedom of expression; which is not absolute in any country. The paper argues that laws on sedition and criminal defamation in Nigeria should be repealed and the global threat posed by Wiki Leaks, which is abusing this freedom, should be addressed. Furthermore, the paper submits that an independent institution should be empowered to issue wireless broadcasting licences
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Gender and Information Needs, Sources,problems Faced in the Use of Agricultural Information by Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria Cooperative Farmers in Ukwuani Local

The study investigated Gender and information needs, sources, problems faced in the use of agricultural information by Cooperative Farmers in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State. The study examined the information needs, information sources and also to ascertain the problems that militate against cooperative farmers while using agricultural information. To guide the study, three research questions were raised. Descriptive survey design was adopted and questionnaire was the research instrument that was used in obtaining data. The population of the study is 218 cooperative farmers (both male and female) in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State. The study revealed that. Both sexes agreed that they need agricultural information on pests and disease control; improve method of farming, how to obtain credit /loan facilities and where to store and sell their produce. Result also shows that both sexes agreed that personal experience, Neighbours / Friends, and Cooperative society are some of their major sources of agricultural information. The major problems faced by both sexes of cooperative farmers in the use of agricultural information are erratic power supply, untimely information, lack of visitation by agricultural extension officer, no nearby library, lack of computer knowledge and access to agricultural databases and lack of agricultural information in my native. Based on the findings, the following recommendation was made: Government, information officers, agricultural extension workers and other relevant bodies should ensure that cooperative and other rural farmers are provided with accurate and timely agricultural information. The study concludes that agricultural information is of utmost important to cooperative farmers of both sexesin order to increase productivity.
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